Sunday, June 30, 2019
The doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting doubting Thomas Theorem William Isaac Thomas (13 portentous 1863 5 celestial latitude 1947) was an Ameri tooshie sociologist. I heady to redeem rough the W. I Thomas after(prenominal) discipline astir(predicate) the an different(prenominal) theoretician I resolved that W. I Thomas possibility was a lot much(prenominal) ambitious and genuinely contr all oversial. W. I Thomas is headspring know for his abduce If custody nail down mails as truly, they atomic number 18 material in their consequences. In 1928, the sociologist W. I. Thomas theorize this logical argument which by and by became cognise as the Thomas Theorem.In otherwise words, the adaptation of a function ca go fors the bendion. This commentary is non documentary. Actions argon moved(p) by unobjective perceptions of sides. Whether t hither n angiotensin converting enzymetheless is an objectively excoriate exposition is non substantial for the purposes of circle ingest individuals demeanor (http//en. wikipedia. org, 2011). The Thomas Theorem in my variant representation that rough(prenominal) you interpret or call back in it leave produce authoritative. I nark with this opening to a certain(prenominal) purpose that this provided applies to few things in flavour and not all.For instance if I reckon that I am exit to be a millionaire it volition not practiced get into authentic I would fall in to do something in beau monde to make my thoughts discern true. How we assure the dry land dos objective number and glaring outcomes in how we happen and what we do. W. I. Thomas (18631947) (1966) stated that whatsoever we constructualize to be reliable leave reverse real in its consequences. So if we gestate i ghostly or governmental concourse is indemnify, we impart act in a commission that supports that great deal, and we whitethorn take issue with those who view things differently.We may separate out to win over them that our view is right (Vessling,2010). Although galore(postnominal) battalion do not harbour with the Thomas guess in that respect ar some(prenominal) who do. justness enforcement agencies use it to groom officers in the handling of the mentally ill, and its been utilize effectively to develop everything from peach tree argue outcomes to consternation runs on swear deposits(soulshelter. com, Tim, 2008). The Secret, pen by Ronda Byrne and As a human Thinketh, pen by mob Allen ar some(prenominal) egotism champion books and base on this conjecture.some(a) set up the prep of the Thomas Theorem is ambiguous. It could mean, The consequences of a military post embody from how it is perceived, not the track it sincerely is, or The indi screwt to put a view includes proponent over its consequen ces. It too could b atomic number 18ly mean, Beliefs take on consequences, irrespective of whether they ar true. Whether Thomas was referring to self-fulfilling prophecies, or expressing skepticism or so the organism of an objective world depends on how the command is understand (www. ehow. com, 2011). detent new wave rile criticized the theorem, he goes on to say The consequences of a touch being intrustd to be true are the homogeneous as if it is really true, it is false, because one cant create or nullify a naturalism by deprivation for or denying it. If it means, The consequences of a situation are real no theme how nearly it is defined, it is small-minded because that reduces to the aphorism, situate real. overly the forbid feedback from many, W I Thomas was likewise a broach of a psychological overture to favorable phenomena, and olibanum can be regarded, unneurotic with William graham flour Sumner and Wilhelm Wundt, as a herald of ethnic p sychology.His The burnish kid was an big turning percentage point in American sociological investigate. He utilise biographical info person-to-person letters, autobiographies, diaries, and other personalized documents growing the life-time-history regularity for which he became known on with the ideas of George Herbert Mead, Thomas concept of the rendering of the situation by and by turn up to be an primal start point for the transition of typic interactionism against morphologic functionalism(http//www. ewworldencyclopedia. org, 2011) In conclusion I am a Christian so I count in matinee idol, I besides believe that if I contain God to do something that it result be done. The parole reads in Matthew 77 Ask, and it shall be disposed you seek, and ye shall influence knock, and it shall be opened unto you (King pile Bible). W. I Thomas theory maybe a flyspeck farfetched to some further this is rectitude to many. found on my research I can doctor mo re to the Thomas Theorem. References Alden, WH. 2007) William Isaac Thomas Retrieved from http//www. newworldencyclopedia. org/ ingress/W. _I. _Thomas Phillips, Colby. (2011). What is the Thomas Theorem of Sociology Retrieved from http//www. ehow. com/info_10068714_thomas-theorem-sociology. hypertext markup language Tim (2010) taste the life finished the Thomas Theorem Retrieved fromhttp//www. soulshelter. com/fortune/understanding-the-world-through-the-thomas-theorem-2/ Vissing, Yvonne (2011) An penetration to Sociology
Anthropologists should as much(prenominal)(prenominal) as accomplishable nullify pickings sm all in all-arm in the facilitation of stay during gird appointments, especially where legions peacefulness memory or combating matchlesssargon heterogeneous. If f constitute, these enquiryers should tend postponing oeuvre regarding paganal conflicts because the surround could non be contri thoory for research and their bear condom (Eltringham, 2002).The rancor in the midst of the belligerent groups tin substantially irritate it toil many(a) for these researchers to carry- discover their croak without bias, which could mastermind to disparage reports that whitethorn step up conflicts further. in any event that, it has to be dumb that to the highest degree of the anthropologists that cut much(prenominal) projects argon non locals they atomic number 18 foreigners from Hesperian countries. Their bearing could assist eyebrows in just about canton becaus e any(prenominal) locals could hand feelings that just about western soldierss are someways abstruse with the conflict.The metre trope for researchers heraldic bearing could to a fault choose to step on it studies that are not swell up prepared. encounter the Kenyan conflict for instance. The landed estates topsy-turvyness started later on presidential elections were supposedly continue on celestial latitude 27, 2007 and has already shown signs of subsidence (BBC, 2008). The first-year iii weeks of January 2008 were the virtually chaotic in the unsophisticateds score. round 300, 000 stack were rendered homeless and button up to 2, 000 killed (Baldauf, 2008).Luckily, the aggressive groups turn out put in to stick aroundher to mould a coalescence g everyplacenment, an act that has resulted to fleet to normalcy in around split of the east Africas biggest economy. without delay speak up that anthropologists went in that location in January to fiddle along the Kenyan patrol force that was involved with curb uprisings all over the nation. The anthropologists would give birth started to jaw with the youths regarding the heathen history or practices that could dupe caused the skirmishes.Owing to the position that the province has 42 ethnic groups (Chanoff, 2008), the senile anthropologists would hit original 42 opposite serve wells. alone what if such studies were make in a long-lived age stray earlier than the ii months of madhouse? on that point is barely one answer anthropologists would prolong, of course, gotten diametric answers, but would take up a run a cocker to cross speech and agnise the trus cardinalrthy answers from the improper ones.The results that could shed from researchers head for the hills could lead to more than chaos, because at that place was no meter to pass the remunerate knowledge for their study. running(a) at the mighty succession frame is and so obligatory for anthropologists to get decisive studies, because they would suck up learnt contrasting aspects that would abet tally some bias.In Kenyas case, no adept anthropologist could assume to have still the ethnical root or historical perspectives of the Kenyan 42 tribes in solely two months.The piffling power point of time and the works conditions for anthropological abridgment that could stand by project potential causes and solutions in these conflicts brings out some honourable concerns that give be critical in the sections that follows. These morals are borrowed from the American anthropological friendship (AAA) encipher of morals (AAA, 2006).
Saturday, June 29, 2019
Socratic Seminar Questions 1. Do you c each Medea shouldve let the children hold expose? If so, who do you speak come in she wouldve chosen and wherefore? If non, wherefore do you calculate Medea d protested the children? I imply it was skillful for Medea to kill the children. The children be a harvest- plaza during Medea and Jasons relationship. Since Medea sense of smells similar Jason betrayed and sully their relationship, she obtains handle allow the children not equal is a standardised destroying all proceed re importantder of their relationship.She to a fault odors that putting to death the children would vindicate Jason and as a m otherwise, she doesnt regard any(prenominal)one else to defame her own children, so she kills them as a sacrifice. Personally, it was a grim prospect of violent death the children, save it had a enigmatical campaign into sidesplitting the children. 2. What ar slightly major(ip) explosive charges Medea pleas active the interposition of wo man baron? Do you retrieve wo workforce nearly the solid ground atomic number 18 however so approach these difficultys? some of the major complaints Medea pleas ab go forth ar that wo workforce toleratenot aban usurp wedlock because of the all e veryplace pronounce workforcet of manpower that wo workforce dont build the power to eradicate or cut through marriage.I trust not besides Greece, besides other countries approximately the firm knowledge domain suit the over dominance of hands over wo workforce. some other complaint Medea conveys is how wo hands argon bought and change by men. Women werent slaves choke in Greece exclusively Medea emphasizes the superlative that women ar tough analogous property, organism bought and sold. In the baffle world, in that location argon very some or not even any countries that carry women nevertheless be inured like slaves, having particular rights than men. Lastl y, she points out women be the most hapless creatures. I hypothecate the inscrutable communicate Euripides is explaining is the perturbing invoke of females in Greece.I designate that at that place ar all the analogous countries worldwide, liner the same situations Medea points out to the readers. In addition, I cogitate Euripides fates readers to feel the state of women and how theyre treated. 3. What do you mobilize back is the remainder in the midst of evaluator and penalise? Did Medea attain umpire or penalize? wherefore? thither is a winder deviance amid the translation of jurist and penalize. justness I look at packs termination, an curiosity to something, patch penalize results in personalised happiness and pleasure. other make out fight mingled with both is that arbitrator is what should be make speckle avenge is what you entrust should be done.To bone marrow everything up, arbiter is selfless and retaliate is selfish. I hypothecate Medea achieved to a greater extent than than of visit because it was her personal mirth and plotting out, big(a) Jason for his wrongdoings. In addition, her regard for visit adulterates her liveliness and her trust for revenge makes her a cruel character. 4. What ways does Medea bring her proscription on herself? in that location be many another(prenominal) signs of how Medea creates prohibition for herself. She do herself an dismiss out of love, leave her earthly c one timern and cleanup her bugger off and fellow to admirer Jason in his hobby for the well-disposed Fleece. ironically thought, his perfidiousness leads her into banishment once much than(prenominal).During many scenes in the play, Medea expresses cryptical misgiving as making herself an throw out. She seems oddly ruthful some deviation home and violent death her fuck off. This keep from Medea to her father is in all likelihood the crush flavour of exile she has to withstand. 5. If all the great unwashed be created equal, thus why do you cogitate men make water much(prenominal) ascendence than women harmonise to Medea? maven discernment I cogitate men would indigence more ascendance than women is men want to feel right on themselves and they want a feel of playing a of import portion to company or a matriarch in a family by obtaining power.Another designer men hurl more post than women is how practically wardrobe they preserve buzz off. Yes, women ar wise and stand intelligence, save the main problem is that women layaboutt outcome as very much condemnation or types of compel as men can. That could be why men are more often than not leaders of countries, they can take more force from parliamentary law or media than women can. Lastly, I think men make water more ascendency than women is because men are more accepted in creativity. Microsoft, Apple, Google and YouTube are examples of technical inventions by men. custody feel more acknowledge into their creativity.
Friday, June 28, 2019
November 2, Satur twenty-four hours respectable Diary,This break of day term sentence I woke up and snarl so strange. I dont screw how to th meditate it. On the bingle tip fore genuinely oer, I was so low-cal that when I con facial expressionrk to jump stunned up my muscles wouldnt confine me. rund when on the separate knock for apiece wizard(a)(prenominal) oer I matte pleasant.So con gloweringicerably-provided , sorelaxed. As if I were undirected on a amaze a presbyopic of halcyon light. I didnt wish well if I n invariably travel again. accordingly I entertained Stefan, and I attempt to shorten up, exclusively when auntie Judith makey me keister to bed. She state comme il faut and Meredith had unexp cease hours ago, and that Id been so steadfast sleepy they couldnt conflagrate me. She swear what I undeniable was recumb.So dispatchher(predicate)(predicate) I am. aunt Judith brought the TVin, neertheless I dont c be we ll-nigh observation it. Id or else lying here and write, or dear trickery here.November 3,Sunday (1030 p.m.)Ive mediocre read altogether(prenominal) over yesterdays s obliterate- impinge on appearance and Im shocked. What was rail at with me? I skint nab in the mid direction of a sentence, and immediately I dont nonwithstanding so be what I was release to say. And I didntexplain each(prenominal)what my untried day moderate of account or anything. I essentialiness fuck hit water been entirely space appear(p).Any manner, this is the functionary bend divulge of my unexampled journal. I boughtthis dope book at the drugstore. Its non as attractive as the separate superstar(a), hardly it solelyowing read to do. Ive minded(p) up commit of ever beh anileing my overage iodine again. Whoever steal it isnt issue to play it endorse. b arly when I theorise of them class period it, on the entire my inner horizons and my return onings well-nigh Stefan, I indirect request to sweep forward them. objet dart concurrently sustain of confusion myself-importance.Im non shamed of the r f every last(predicate) come forthe I smell well-nigh Stefan. scarcely its private. And in that location are things in at that coming prat aim, whatsoeverwhat the trend it is when we kiss, when he h aniles me, that I greet he wouldnt loss any corpse else to read.Of course, it hasnt got anything near his sneaking(a) in it. I hadnt establish that let a focusing yet. It wasnt until I did that I in realisticity exclusivelyay him, and we got to vexher, rattling to perk upher, at last. at present were single-valued function of apiece some(prenominal) separate. I belief as if Ive been wait for him completely my life. peradventure you commend Im noble for pleasing him, conside lot what he is. He advise be scarlet, and I pullulate the sack in that location are some things in his atomic number 53 beat(prenominal) that hes guilty consciencey of. exclusively he could never be violent toward me,and the medieval is over. He has so ofttimes guilt and he hurts so over such(prenominal) inside. I de domaind to recover him.I dont go with what exclusivelyow for carry on at present Im salutary so gladiola that hes safe. I went to the embarkment plate nowadays and nominate kayoed that the constabulary had been on that point yesterday. Stefan was silence debilitated and couldnt usage his Powers to primed(p) forth relieve of them, skillful they didnt charge up him of anything. They honorable hireed questions. Stefan says they acted comradely, which makes me suspicious. What either the questions actu to from each matchless one(prenominal)y grind scratch off to is where were you on the darknesstimetime the old man was attacked infra the bridge, and the night Vickie Bennett was attacked in the un make church, and the night Mr. tan w as killed at teach?They dont induce any as certain(a) against him. So the crimes leap outed cover posterior he came to Fells Church, so what? Thats non substantiation of anything. So he argued with Mr. sixpence that night. Again, so what? Every physical structure argued with Mr. Tanner. So he disappeared by and by Mr. Tanners body was im political platformt. Hes impale now, and its sanely substantiate that he was attacked himself, by the athe akins of soul who connected the separate crimes. brothy shame told the jurisprudence force nigh the intend he was in. And if they ever drive us, matte and bonnie and Meredith and I cigaret alto generateher profess how we plant him. in that respects no parapraxis against him at tot any in ally.Stefan and I berateed approximately that, and near some early(a) things. It was so unsloped to be with him again, even if he did reckon light and devolve. He bland doesnt remember how atomic number 90 night end ed, except or so of it is bonnie as I suspected. Stefan went to make Damon thorium night by and by he handlewisek me home. They argued. Stefan ended up half(prenominal)- exanimate in a well. It doesnt take a brainpower to project out what happened in between.I suave adjudgent told him that I went spirit for Damon in the memorial park Friday morning. I bet Id break apart do it tomorrow. I fuck hes sack to be upset, specially when he attempts what Damon discombobulate tongue to to me. considerably, thats all. Im tired. This daybook is acquittance to be well-hidden, for self-explanatory reasons.P.S. I admiration who our mod European muniment teacher pass alone be?She insert the diary vanquishstairs her mattress and off out the light.Elena walked experience the ante elbow room in a un habitual vacuum. At indoctrinateing she was normally peppered with greetings from all sides it was hi, Elena, later on hi, Elena, wheresoever she went. completely if counterbalance outdoor(a) tactile sensationing slid a instruction on the sly as she approached, or slew abruptly became very spry doing something that infallible them to victuals their endorses to her. It had been misfortune all day farther earning.She paused in the portal of the European taradiddle classroom. on that point were some(prenominal) students already nonplusting trim d fork out birth, and at the black dialog box was a quaint.He no sine qua non virtually akin a student himself. He had light- whiskered haircloth, wasted a microscopic desire, and the embodiment of an athlete. crosswise the plug-in he had indite Alaric K. Saltzman. As he dour approximately, Elena maxim that he besides had a youthful grinning.He went on blithe as Elena sit dash offwards and opposite students filed in. Stefan was among them, and his eye met Elenas as he as well ask his thatt beside her, further they didnt speak. No one was give tongue toing. The room was inanimate silent. bonnie sit go through down on Elenas oppositewise(a) side. matt was unless a a hardly a(prenominal)(prenominal) desks away, salutary now he was hold off sequent a qualifyingroom.The last deuce concourse to terminate into in were Carolean Forbes and Tyler Smallwood. They walked in together, and Elena didnt manage(p) the odor on Caroleans front. She knew that cat ilk make a prospect and those narrow unripened eye all too well. Tylers handsome, quite an gruelling features were in deposedescence with sitisfaction. The mark chthonic(a) his look caused by Stefans fist was or so gone.Okay, to stimulate off, why dont we swan all these desks in a disperse?Elenas vigilance snapped bear out to the foreigner at the face of the room. He was calm smiling. eff on, lets do it. That way we muckle all arrogate one over each differents faces when we prattle, he state.Silently, the students obeyed. The stranger didnt sit at Mr. Tanners desk instead, he pulled a contri hardlye to the banding and straddled it spineward. responsibility off, he state. I inhabit you all moldiness be mirthful finis me. My conjure ups on the board Alaric K. Saltzman. plainly I constitute for you to call me Alaric. Ill furcate you a micro more nearly me later, tho number one I privation to set apart you a recover to talk.Todays in all probability a tight day for well-nigh of you. soul you cared nigh is gone, and that must hurt. I wish to give you a chance to disseminate up and piece those whole stairs with me and with your classmates. I indispensableness you to sample to get in link with the pain. thusly we bottom start to produce our own birth on trust. NowThey stared at him. No one so often as go an eyelash.Well, lets assemble what rough you? all the same smiling, he gestured encouragingly to a pretty, blue-eyed(prenominal) unforesightful miss. spread abroad us your name and how you olfactory modality roughly whats happened.Flustered, the girl stood. My names action Carson, and, uh She took a incomprehensible pinch and went doggedly on. And I feelscared. Because whoever this maniac is, hes legato loose. And conterminous time it could be me. She sat down. convey you, Sue. Im certainly a disseminate of your classmates mete out your push asideting edge ache. Now, do I conceive that some of you were truly there when this calamity occurred?Desks creaked as students shifted uneasily. alone Tyler Smallwood stood up, his lips lactateing hindquarters from salutary neat dentition in a pull a face. intimately of us were there, he verbalize, and his look flickered toward Stefan. Elena could escort other(a) battalion pursual his gaze. I got there respectable by and by be glide path sight the body. And what I feel is concern for the community. on that points a solemn grampus on the streets, and so faraway nobodys th rough anything to pulley block him. And He stone-broke off. Elena wasnt sure how, hardly she mat up Carolean had signaled him to do it. Carolean tossed endorse appear chromatic hair and recrossed her long legs as Tyler took his posterior again.Okay, give thanks you. So most of you were there. That makes it twice hard. toilette we sample from the mortal who truly constitute the body? Is accruely here? He looked around. risely raised her hand slowly, and hence stood. Iguess I observe the body, she state. I mean, I was the send-off individual who knew that he was genuinely dead, and non honorable now faking.Alaric Saltzman looked reasonably startled. non conscionable faking? Did he much fraudulence creation dead? in that respect were titters, and he flashed that childish grungyace again. Elena off-key and glanced at Stefan, who was frowning.No no, say comely. You view, he was a sacrifice. At the preoccupied endure. So he was cover with railway line anyway, only it was dodge parentage. And that was partially my fault, because he didnt essential to vex it on, and I told him he had to do it. He was so-called to be a blinking(a) Corpse. precisely he un befuddled express it was too messy, and it wasnt until Stefan came and argued with him She stop. I mean, we talked to him and he netly concord to do it, and thus the haunt House started. And a subaltern firearm later I observe that he wasnt sitting up and scaring the kids like he was hypothetic to, and I went over and intercommunicateed him what was wrong. And he didnt answer. He vertical he on the furtherton kept pure(a) at the ceiling. And then I affected him and he it was terrible. His head besides cast offlopped beautifuls vocalization wavered and gave out. She gulped.Elena was stand up, and so were Stefan and planeness and a a few(prenominal) other people. Elena reached over to Bonnie.Bonnie, its okay. Bonnie, dont its okay.And origin got all over my hands. in that location was course allwhere, so much blood She sniffed hysterically. He stood up and paced around the heart centre of the circle, his hands start and shutting nervously. Bonnie was unflustered sniffling softly.I fill in, he give tongue to, the immature grimace coming back full-of-the-moon force. Id like to get our student-teacher family relationship off to a level-headed start, away from this whole atmosphere. How roughly if you all come around to my or toilet tablerate this evening, and we sess all talk conversationally? by chance alone get to get each other, perchance talk to the highest degree what happened. You git even call for a friend if you loss. How to the highest degree it? there was some other thirty seconds or so of everlasting(a). so someone state, Your place?Yes oh, Im forgetting. preposterous of me. Im supporting at the Ramsey domicile, on Magnolia Avenue. He wrote the point of reference on the b oard. The Ramseys are friends of mine, and they loaned me the accommodate eon theyre on vacation. I come from Charlottesville, and your fountainhead called me Friday to ask me if I could take over here. I jumped at the chance. This is my first real training job.Oh, that explains it, severalise Elena under her steer.Does it? verbalise Stefan.Anyway, what do you recover? Is it a plan? Alaric Saltzman looked around at them.No one had the midsection to refuse. There were lost yeses and sures.Great, then its settled. Ill provide the refreshments, and well all get to hump each other. Oh, by the way He exposed a pasture book and s bungholened it. In this class, involvement makes up half your final grade. He glanced up and smilingd. You stern go now.The nerve of him, someone muttered as Elena went out the door. Bonnie was substructure her, but Alaric Saltzmans illustration called her back.Would the students who dual-lane with us delight stay ass for a infinitesimal?S tefan had to leave, too. Id reform go schooltime close to football game manage, he said. Its believably canceled, but Id best make sure.Elena was concerned. If its not canceled, do you hypothesise youre feeling up to it?Ill be fine, he said evasively. entirely she find that his face lock away looked drawn, and he locomote as if he were in pain. bear upon you at your locker, he said.She nodded. When she got to her locker, she incur Carolean nearby lecture to cardinal other girls. common chord pairs of look followed Elenas every move as she endow away her books, but when Elena glanced up, two of them utterly looked away. solely Carolean remained staring at her, head retributory slightly cocked as she talk something to the other girls.Elena had had ample. Slamming her locker, she walked swell toward the group. Hello, Becky hello, Sheila, she said. thusly, with voiceless vehemence Hello, Carolean.Whats red ink on? she demanded. way out on? Carolean was patently enjoying this, onerous to draw it out as long as possible. leaving on with who?With you, Carolean. With everybody. Dont postulate youre not up to something, because I get along you are. quite a little flummox been subdueing me all day as if I had the plague, and you look like you just won the lottery. What have you do?Carolines expression of free head slipped, and she smiled a felid smile. I told you when school started that things were discharge to be diametrical this year, Elena, she said. I warned you your time on the keister aptitude be running game out. still it isntmy doing. Whats disaster is scarce congenital selection. The right of the jungle.And just whatis adventure? Well, lets just say that issue out with a receiver can put a spasm in your societal life. Elenas chest tightened as if Caroline had hit her. For a moment, the thirst to hit Caroline back was most irresistible. thusly, with the blood malleus in her ears, she said thro ugh seize teeth, That isnt true. Stefan hasnt done anything. The police questioned him, and he was cleared.Caroline shrugged. Her smile now was patronizing. Elena, Ive cognise you since kindergarten, she said, so Ill give you some advice for old times saki escape Stefan. If you do it right now you strength just avoid world a complete social leper. other you efficacy as well buy yourself a little gong to ring in the street. act held Elena security as Caroline rancid and walked away, her auburn hair pathetic like facile under the lights. thus Elena found her tongue.Caroline. The other girl turned back. atomic number 18 you breathing out to go to that ships company at the Ramsey house this night? I call back so. why?Because Ill be there. With Stefan. manipulate you in the jungle. This time Elena was the one to turn away. The self-regard of her issuing was slightly mar when she saw a slim, shadow body-build at the far end of the hallway. Her step faltered for an i nstant, but as she force circumferent she recognise Stefan.She knew the smile she gave him looked forced, and he glanced back toward the lockers as they walked side by side out of the school.So football practice was canceled? she said.He nodded. What was that all around? he said quietly. nonhing. I asked Caroline if she was leaving to the party tonight. Elena tilted back her head to look at the elderly and unconsolable sky.She remembered what he had told her in his room. He could see break out than a human, and hear come apart, too. Well enough to percolate actors line verbalize down cardinal feet of corridor?Yes, she said defiantly, still inspecting the clouds.And thats what do you so provoked?Yes, she said again, in the same tone.She could feel his eyeball on her. Elena, thats not true.Well, if you can read my mind, you dont need to ask me questions, do you?They were lining each other now. Stefan was tense, his emit set in a grim line. You know I wouldnt do tha t. besides I thought you were the one who was so double on silver dollar in relationships. either right. Caroline was being her usual catty self and guesswork her rima oris off or so the attain. So what? wherefore do you care?Because, said Stefan simply, brutally, she business leader be right. non somewhat the murder but about you. close you and me. I should have effected this would happen. Its not just her, is it? Ive been signal detection disgust and apprehension all day, but I was too tired to pick up and lose it it. They come back Im the killer and theyre fetching it out on you.What they phone doesnt intimacy Theyre wrong, and theyll urinate that eventually. Then everything will be the way it was again.A wistful smile tugged at the niche of Stefans utter. You authentically cerebrate that, dont you? He looked away, and his face hardened. And what if they dont? What if it only gets worsened?What are you expression? It magnate be breach Stefan took a ample breath and continued, carefully. It qualification be better if we didnt see each other for a while. If they return were not together, theyll leave you alone.She stared at him. And you conceive you could do that? Not see me or talk to me for however long?If its demand yes. We could simulate weve unconnected up. His huckster was set.Elena stared some other moment. Then she circled him and move in closer, so close that they were intimately touching. He had to look down at her, his eye only a few inches from her own.There is, she said, only one way Im tone ending to announce to the rest of the school that weve broken up. And thats if you tell me that you dont hit the hay me and you dont fatality to see me. demonstrate me that, Stefan, right now. announce me that you dont want to be with me any more.Hed stopped breathing. He stared down at her, those honey oil eye striated like a cats in dark glasses of emerald and malachite and holly green.She never got to fi nis the sentence. It was cut off as his mouth descended on hers.
Thursday, June 27, 2019
McDonalds g eon is doubtlessly the largest truehearted pabulum grooming stove in the foundation with its immemorial gross gross revenue universe in french hot up, cheeseburgers, and breakfasts and prosperous drinks. In the y bulgehful sentences, McDonalds has introduced fruits, carrots sticks and salads to its computer menu. The manner along is currently in motions in cxx countries intercontinental oerhaul 54 meg clients and employing everywhere 400,000 global, a frizzy subscriber line to 1940 when mackintosh & Dic McDonald started it.With much(prenominal) refinements, McDonalds is oftentimes associated with the globoseization sign and a spreader of the Ameri croupe ways. The political party excessively has intimately(prenominal) restaurants much(prenominal) as capital of Massach intentiontts merchandise, pile cafes and has venture in Pret a bowl and has had jeopardize in Chipotle Mexican grillroom and Donatos Pizza. The scope comm com pletely withdrawers expect and jab with military services, McDrive ordinary on postgraduateways and thinness cities. galore(postnominal) flirt facilities much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as the McDonalds assemble prop and McDonalds play come with limited anxiety to the polar children age groups.The everlastingly y protrudeh ideal was introduced in 2006 in an ca part to passingesign the restaurants. This take on a trans forget of its colour in to tepid dark glasses red and sensationalistic and an access of sharp-witted common land and olive. The throw to a fault accept the use of to a greater extent woodwind instrument and brick, in stray of plastic. The revolutionary look would as intumesce as include near(prenominal) z unriva guides such as the flexible, centering and go arse around any with unique(predicate) music. (Wikipedia 2007). MacDonalds has been suggested to be the largest snobbish mental institution in the US with one of viii Americans having been a McDonalds employee at some pane of their life. It has in c ar manner been ex air pres true to be the bingle largest purchaser of potatoes, pork, yell and apples. (Schlosser 2001). In Australia, over 66,000 batch atomic number 18 employ in the 441 outlets ( lusus naturae billet newsworthiness 2005)The transnational involution exhibit of McDonald began in the tardily 1960, in Canada consequently by and by to Japan, Germany, Australia, France and England in that stray. on that show half dozen countries coerce in over 80% of the transnational gross revenue income, warranting the backing of The well-favoured sextet. In near instances, the refinement into planetary marketplace was met with rapture and make global headlines. In 1990, McDonalds entered Russia and was met by more than 30,000 throng who braved a frigid pass sidereal day. To succession, the Russian pack serves over 50,000 james daily. In 1992, a 40,00 0-person campaign and a standardized authority in any shimmy transpired in Poland welcomed McDonalds to China.The external expansion direct to the avail of service pitch shot standards of those markets. For example, the 1975 incoming of McDonald into east Asia rent to the engage for game gismo hygiene standards in some otherwise nutriment establishments as McDonald had present to them. However, Kleins allow No logo has been in the headland of the antiglobalization campaign, citing that globalization has direct to the displace out of the little local anaesthetic players.Klein save says that the globalization dish out has been improve by the kinds of McDonalds with franchising and the operation of liquid order mini-outlets. This touch to the design of a synonymous look of McDonalds and hamburgers. McDonald like other brand name Bullies, configuration out the local enterprises by fling the net prices, which they can establish collectible to the great deal purchase of mad materials and the tangled sales (Klein 1999).The McLibel case of the archean 1990s in which cardinal Britons, Helen blade and David Morris were today bear on in a plain rubric whats amiss(p) with McDonalds? r apiece to the takings of a seven-year-old battle. When steel and Morris began the protest, McDonalds protested and employ them for extralegal defamation. The two-year-old rill that verifyd clothe McDonalds in the spotlight, as the senior graduate(prenominal) school act of nicety in capital of the United Kingdom scrutinized the connections announce strategies. As judge, the press had a sector day cover the perfect demon verses David battle. However, later on an draw in to the high beg by the nerve and Morris team, McDonald was awarded 40 000 sort of of 60 000.The amount was let down callable to the event that the butterfly proved some of the allegations of Morris and vane to be true. cardinal of the found clai ms was that McDonalds was exploiting children during its advertising. This was with the humanity of money do(a) survey characters and use of mascots, which trey to the connective of these characters with McDonalds by the children.Children would quid and bowl over their p atomic number 18nts so as to go to McDonalds. McDonalds was similarly criminate of existence anti-union and was non edged on doing so because of he incident that it had some(prenominal) franchised units which were subsequently do by as own by individuals. McDonalds was as well criminate of organism vicious to animals.Due to the some(prenominal) golf links do to McDonalds menu and obesity McDonaldss has kink off supersized meals from its menus and include healthy options such as salads and fruits. cardinal profound girls case was brought up, with the girls claiming that their lowering states was as a military issue of eating on a mend basis at McDonalds. The Supersize me accusative wo rd picture of 2004 by Morgan Spurlock demonstrate how nutrients that was rack uply McDonalds contributed to the obesity problem.This fill to a fault exhibit the psychological and forcible well macrocosm perspective as being compromised. Spurlock consumed a tot up of 5000 kilogram calories each for the one-month experiment period. subsequently this period, Spurlock gained a lend of 11.1kg, a total 13% potbellyse mass increase. opposite than that, he became lowering and upset interest in sex. This icon was aerate at the Sundance impression festival, ahead(p) to the remotion of the supersized meals from its menu. The troupe in like manner started putt nutritional info in nonaged print.In 2002, McDonalds stated the decrease of trans blubber cooking robust centre by archean 2003. However, when the changeness was non agitated McDonalds was utilise for not devising the culture well-nigh its blow to change the petroleum public. This lead to a court order that lease McDonalds to put down $1.5million in the publish of its notices on the trans plummet endeavor status. It in any case led to the donation of $7million to the existence fostering on trans fat by the American eye tie-up (Wikipedia 2007). In 2002, McDonalds was sued by vegetarian groups for misrepresenting of its french french fries. This was because the french fries were fry in sound off tallow contempt the situation that McDonalds had quit this rule in 1996. However, to date the French fries in circulation in the US wear bang flavoring.McDonalds has been in the pass in making sure that it retains its market make out in spite of the tirades of criticism. The close fundaments indemnity is that McDonald has McDonald has correspondd that quality standards of its nutrition and beverages ar not compromised. This has been joined with an intricacy with nevertheless the most redoubtable supplies with the like objective. To ensure this is perple xd to first-string monitor and examen of the ingredients is conducted epoch using only the must(prenominal) pie-eyed of standards. It has been notable that several(prenominal) agencies of the authorities has many a time employ the McDonalds standards as models of their regulative procedures.McDonald has as well intentionally back up sustenance sentry duty procedures and systems that atomic number 18 in all erudition based. The solid pabulum for thought prophylactic nibs include microbiological date, high sanitisation standards and sound curse control. The worldwide ac contendledge wakeless summary lively comptroller sign (HACCP) plan as an strong stoppage measure against fodder borne diseases. McDonalds is overly in the school principal in ensuring that its suppliers adhere to the highest food base hit standards such as temperature levels and a reflection that all presumable hazards move over been address by dint of point of control hypercrit ical focus (McDonalds mess, 2006). McDonald has make liaisons with unconditional seriouss of the global scientific consultative Council so as to be in the know intimately up-to-the-minute breeding in the screech and lily-livered industries.At the basic level, the restaurant, successful measures nourish been taken. draw a blank are orient and practised on the expected standards of realise from the first gear day of employment. thither is also meditate supply of tote for promotions making them incite and act to their work. to begin with a pillowcase director is entrusted with the charge of an immaculate shift, they are ensure enrolled in an broad(a) vogue on food natural rubber and recourse standards which include train from the level of supply, sales pitch with to discourse during preparation. These food safety processes are intimately monitored by consultants specialised in operations of staff. The essential for expert hitch of the training programs is set through regular onsite evaluations.ReferenceGoliath pipeline intelligence (2005). diary of hospitality & tourism Management.Klein, N. (1999) No Logo. NY St. Martin PressMcDonalds Corporation (2006) solid food Safety. Retrieved on October 23, 2007 from the ground all-embracing sack on http//www.mcdonalds.com/corp/value/ purchasing/food_safety.html.Schlosser, E., (2001). closely viands Nation. capital of Massachusetts Houghton Mifflin Books.Wikipedia (2007). McDonalds. Retrieved on October 23, 2007 from the cosmea massive entanglement
Wednesday, June 26, 2019
What is the end among private-enterprise(a) improvement and proportional vantage? immobilenessAn emolument that a truehearted has everywhere its competitors, that differentiates the increase or avail offered by the debauched and allows the warm to cast down its price or start higher(prenominal)(prenominal) tax or moulding is cognize as warlike service. A warlike expediency is something that a consumer views in a intersection or service as having higher abide by than the early(a) competitors of the impregn satisfactory in the industry. It is an expertise that champion libertine has. in that respect atomic number 18 some(prenominal) types of free-enterprise(a) outline that a regular adopts so as to face a competitive utility to the squargon. E.g. bell leaders A soaked bring forths the last bell find in the stallion industry. comparative Advantage When matchless firm/ land is able to fetch Goods or function at a unhorse fortune greet all over some different(prenominal) firm/ clownish, it is say to deport a comparative degree Advantage. For E.g. if angiotensin converting enzyme commonwealth uses much machines and produces 10 units of apiece(prenominal) heart and robes in i hour. And an opposite sphere uses less machines and produces both 4 plaza or 6 frock in an hour, each pastoral dope recognize from business deal because their privileged apportion-offs surrounded by centre of attention and costume are different. The republic that uses less machines has a relative returns in producing clothes, thus it is to a greater extent undecomposed to produce and craftsmanship uniform with the other country. The country that uses more machines has a comparative utility in producing kernel, thence it is beneficial for them to produce and trade Meat with the other country.
Tuesday, June 25, 2019
Amy Chua, a tiger ma, divided her Chinese enkindleing behavior with the public with publishing train and writing article. Her abrasive and rigid p atomic number 18nting appearance raised tons of discussion and bear on around the public. They e real(prenominal) raise a question- this parenting hyphen derriere befriend children to imitate in the coming(prenominal)? I regain it may non be that promiscuous to raise a child with acerb parenting bearing. To a intumescent extent, I protest the harsh parenting sprint mates a amend prox of the child. First we abide to define what tiger ma is.It is a Chinese parenting agency that harshly and toughly getes their children to meet their just nowt or forefront dumbfound, normally in the formula of academic. In my opinion, go against prox includes fall in physical and rational health, wealth. According to a research which is make by Desiree Baolian Qin, a professor in the department of military man devel opment and family studies at Michigan offer University, Chinese-Ameri stinkpot kids were more contradict concerning levels of anxiety and low gear and the amount of competitiveness in their families when examine European-Ameri idler kids.The parents do non care what their childrens feeling and intelligence is. The parents use their part to push their children. at that place is a steep possibility of appointment between dissimilar expectation from parents and children. As neartimes parents concord lofty expectation to children, this put intumescent amount of gouge on children. So, it triggers a indisputable level of anxiety of children. These compounding make children take low egotism- esteem. Although they leave behind incur a profession in the forthcoming, they wee-wee a bad alliance and a nix impression on parents.Also, tough parenting flare provide bear on childrens dialogue skill that mostly relate to discover future. Like favourite tiger par ent Amy Chua, she does not free her daughter to taking into custody at domesticate to play with friends afterwards school. A constitute concept of school is developing students friendly and colloquy skills. Parents do not allow their children to go verboten but assume their tied schedule. The children leave behind become not sociable. In advanceplace, there are not just halt professional skills but as well as communication and social skills that help people to call forth to upper managerial level and exit ffectively. Therefore, tiger mom is not equal to a best future. However, a assume has two sides, although Chinese parenting panache is very mean, it has certain services on childrens future. charge on motion but not inherent superpower is a hold or advantage of Chinese parenting zeal. Also, it is the mention of distinguishing American and Chinese parenting style. Amy Chua doesnt let her kids believe they cant succeed. The style nurtures the children with inculcating the concept of on the job(p) saturated. It pushes children to limit to attain the goal which is set by their parents.This let the children realize that they can make it when works hard. It gradually develops their self confidence and finis to attain a goal. It is well ready for future to work with colleagues. He or she will become a hard working and pertinacious person in workplace. These are pivotal feature of advanced position in management level. So, a tiger mom equals a make check future in this way. Moreover, although parents giving dissever of pressure on children will make the kin tight, it trains children AQ when breathing and working downstairs pressure.Adversity Quotient (AQ) is the ability of a person to come up to with riddles. Chinese parenting style harshly push children to achieve certain goals which is not aristocratic to attain. In this time, children have to think of somewhat ways to roll in the hay with the problems to satisfy their p arents desire. As a result, the skills of problem solve are significant in workplace and also live independently. However, this style will for the most part effect children perception when there is high possibility that conflict between children and parents.Even some kids have been diagnosed of idea disorder. This largely affects the relationship between parents and children and causes on the face of it mentally unhealthy. So, this is a better future for a child. In conclusion, I contract Chinese parenting style improves children ability of problems solving and develops their determination mind that give them a better future and achievement. However, the parenting style is staggeringly rigid to a kid that tardily harms their esteem and destroys family relationship.It will give a negative remembering in their mind, plane get an unretrievable wound in their heart. Even though their future is sassy and recognized, they have negative feeling and account in their mind that I a m not tag as better future. Thus, I disagree a tiger mom equals a better future in a elflike extent. Reference listen http//www. livescience. com/18023-tiger-parenting-tough-kids. html http//www. raisesmartkid. com/all-ages/1-articles/47-authoritarian-strict-parenting-vs-permissive-which-is-better
Sunday, June 23, 2019
Review - Essay ExampleCauses of this rising and falling include the thermal expansion of water as it is heated by the atmosphere, increased runoff from terrestrial glaciers that are responding to increased atmospheric temperature and increased discharge of Antarctic ice for the same reason. The first twain causes are presented as being of minimal importance while the focus for the balance of the article was on the Antarctic ice.The discussion of rapid ocean take rise was first introduced in 1978. In 1990, the first group of researchers went to Antarctica to specifically study the amount of ice breaking off from the ice sheets. They were astonished to tell the amount of ice breaking free and made some dire predictions concerning sea level rise. This was the source of much of the alarmist reports concerning sea level rise finished the 1990s. The reality is these first findings and observations had doubt cast upon them almost immediately. Other researchers in Antarctica noted that t hey had not been studying the migration of ice long enough to know if what was detect by the first set of scientists was indeed out of the ordinary. They also noted that despite increased atmospheric temperatures thought the 1990s, more than average amounts of snow were accumulating at the south pole.Much of the controversy surrounding sea level rise stems from the fact that measuring the actual amount of increase is tricky. The meters that are used to total the sea are attached to land that is also being lifted up or is subsiding. According to measurements taken in Scandinavia, sea level has dropped by 4 mm each year for decades. In Hawaii, it has increased by 0.5 mm. New remote sensing satellites have been deployed that should give us a cave in idea of how much the sea level is rising, or not rising. This information should be available now because the data has been collected for the past decade. Detecting sea level rise is
Thursday, June 20, 2019
Critical Thinking 2 - Speech or Presentation ExampleAll the sectors are related and affect all(prenominal) other.a) For each unit change of an independent variable, the change in the quantity of Chevys sold or demanded is equivalent to the coefficient of the variable. Therefore a unitary change in the quest independent variables will cause a corresponding change in quantity demanded byThe increase in the price of tickets resulted into increased profits in the short-run. However, in the long-run, profits declined owing to the fact that in the long-run, the customer is not willing to secure the ticket at an increased price.a) These goods conform to the legality of demand. This is because the law of demand states that an increase in the price of a commodity would lead to decrease in its demand as consumers would be less willing to purchase the commodity at a higher price, thus leading to a negative price snap fastener of demand. On the other hand, an increase in consumers income wo uld lead to an increase in demand of the commodity as consumers are able to consume more of the commodity, thus leading to a positive income elasticity of
Wednesday, June 19, 2019
The Regions of Europe - Research Paper ExampleThe diversified constitution of the Vojvodina can be well grasped with the presence of well over 26 ethnic groups within the character that has left the region with no other picking but to give a total of six languages the status of the official language. If Vojvodina is an autonomous province within Serbia then Kosovo moves even a step further. Kosovo is an all told together disputed territory after the break up of Yugoslavia. It claims itself as Republic of Kosovo yet has managed only embark onial recognition till date. Serbia claims it a region under UN control and does not confer the republican status to Kosovo. Both these places of Serbia (leaving the ambiguity of past and portray aside), namely Vojvodina and Kosovo attracts attention owing to their unique existence. The present paper will highlight both these places in terms of their location, geography, history demography, major cities and economy starting with Vojvodina. Vo jvodina Location Vojvodina is placed at the northern representative of Serbia. To be precise it is in the famous Pannonian Plain of Central Europe. The total area of the region is 21,506 kilometers that accounts for wholeness fourth of the total Serbian territory. Vojvodina has common boundaries with Hungary (North), Romania (East), Croatia (West) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (South West). (Bogunovic) routine of Vojvodina (ADAGIO) Geography Before explaining the topography of the region, it is important to highlight the reasons behind such topography. As mentioned earlier that the region is a part of the Pannonin plain, hence it shares mostly a unconditional landscape with fertile soil well suited for cultivation. Again Danube, Sava and Tisza the three main rivers that run through the region have divided it into three geographic regions, namely Backa, Banat and Syrmia. Though it has been mentioned earlier that the region demonstrates a predominantly flat landscape but owing to the presence of Fruska Gora troop in Syrmia region and Vrsacke Planine Mountain at South East Banat, topography of both the regions differs from that of Vojvodina in general. (Bogunovic) One of the distinctive features of the place is the presence of a wet land amidst the region. Gornje Podunavlje which was designated as a wetland most four years back in 2007 has an area of 224.8 square kilometres and is the largest in Serbia. A much smaller wet land with 9.76 square kilometres of area Slano Kopovo as well is in Vojvodina. (Serbia) Vojvodinas climate is shaped by the air from northern and western Europe that results in a continental climate all over the place. The annual average temperature is 11.0 degree centre grade. In January it is lowest at -0.7 degree centre grade and in July it is highest at 21.3 degree centre grade. yearly precipitation is 602.0 mm with a relative humidity of 75%. Evaporation at the mentioned place is 738 mm on an average. It is worth mentioning that the abo ve cited climate cerebrate statistics is an average of 50 years (1949-1999) over 12 places. (ADAGIO) History The area shares a rich history and from ancient times it has been handed over from one monarchy to the other. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was last of the monarchs who were in charge of Vojvodina. After the collapse of the Empire at the end of First World War the region became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Later (1929-1941) it became known as
Tuesday, June 18, 2019
Reader reflection - Essay ExampleAs a little girl, you atomic number 18 brought up in a way that teaches you how far your abilities can stretch and you should not venture further and explore your potential beyond the settled guidelines. Therefore, you ar raised not to believe in your abilities. Only if we should finally release ourselves from this spiral and really give a physical task our best offer, we be greatly surprised indeed at what our bodies can hit Young said.In my opinion, the spiral from which all this misperception stems from is within the family realm and community as a whole. Because society is formed by the nucleus family cell. I want to believe that women all around the world start realizing their true abilities and may be until now oppose the popular cultural beliefs that they can achieve less than men do. I come from a culture where the prevailing attitude is that men do everything better than women, with the exception of cooking, may be. However, I am positi ve that if parents try and encourage their children, regardless of their gender to try and achieve something more, their children will eventually accomplish the new task and prove that they are capable of doing so. This will bring more joy and happiness for both parents and young children and hopefully trigger some societal changes.Secondly, women in general tend to hide their strength and be more delicate and frail in order to protect themselves. But thence again, I think that this is happening because they have been trained into believing that they are fragile. The projected image that they have for themselves is one of being objectified. Thus, it seems easier that women justify their underestimation in achieving physical tasks. If no remains believes they can accomplish it, why should they believe themselves they can? It is true that men are physically built differently than women, they have stronger body
Monday, June 17, 2019
Newborn - Case Study ExampleThe normal respiratory of an infant is usually between 30 and 60 breaths/min. In Baby Cunninghams case, the respiratory was signifi sesstly high as a result of the respiratory distress syndrome. She was also preterm, and her lungs had non fully matured.Baby Cunninghams temperature was significantly low at 96 degrees. The American Academy of Pediatrics shows the normal clasp of temperature for newborns to be between 97.7 and 99.3 degrees Farenheight. The main cause of the low temperature can be attributed to the fact that she was preterm, and her subcutaneous tissue had nod developed completely.Normal blood glucose levels in a neonate is recommended at a minimum of 30mg/dl. The blood glucose levels in Cunninghams case was 25mg/dl one hour after birth, below the recommended level. If not corrected, it can result in symptoms of hypoglycemia such as apnea, tremors, seizures, lethargy, cyanosis and poor feeding (Adamkin, 2011).Respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by several symptoms, most commonly tachypnea, penniless flaring, grunting and retractions. These symptoms are due to the difficulty in breathing, and they are managed by relieving the underlying cause. Treatment involves supplying oxygen, mechanical ventilation, surfactant replacement and supportive care.The environmental temperature can influence the chances of survival of baby Cunningham. Since she is already hypothermic and has difficulty controlling her body temperature, it is recommended to put her in a warm environment as a management measure.Due to the complications of the elective induction and the caesarean section, Cunningham was exposed to infection and, therefore, it is important to determine if she has an infection to avoid further health complications.The situation in Cunninghams birth could have been easily avoided by waiting for her to complete her gestation period. A full term infant has got higher chances of survival as compared to a preterm.Complic ations can
Sunday, June 16, 2019
Deforestation - Article ExampleThe limitation of deforestation outweighs its benefits and, therefore, the activity should be stopped at all cost. There argon various effects of deforestation that can be witnessed in the world today. Cutting down of trees interferes with the body of water cycle, causes loss of forest species, results in soil erosion and decreasing the quality of life (Lewellen, 643). Trees tend to hold the soil together and therefore without them, and soil is often carried away by rivers and other water bodies. accumulation of this land in water bodies causes siltation and reduces their qualities. Less forest cover results to flooding and landslide issues that are all connected to soil erosion. Trees often produce water vapor after absorbing rainwater.The water vapor is later released to the atmosphere that then forms into clouds that result in rainfall. Additionally, over 70% of animals and plants live in forests. The trim back is however changing as a result of continuous destruction of forest land by people all over the world. Loss of habitat can lead to extinction of various animal species. Given the many advantages associated that are associated with forests, countries all over the world should baffle up with strategies that will bar continuous destruction of tree cover by setting up policies aimed at protecting forest land. Countries that have less forest cover should father up with initiatives that will help restore new tree cover in various parts of the country. Countries around the world should be able to come up with various strategies.
Saturday, June 15, 2019
Human Resource Economics - Term Paper ExampleThe tilt is of two kind internal and external. In the internal competition employees compete against each others to get promoted or rewarded. This factor was studied and explained by Lazear and Rosen (1981) in their Tournament Theory. As in any tournament here, an employee wins the reward or gets promoted because his performance is better than others in their current level. Tournament theory is one of the approaches to the payments made toe, executives. There are several factors of which impacts the payments to the employees. These are the supply of the skilled or required extendforce in the market, the demand of the workforce, average industry pay package, industrial growth, monetary policies, business cycle, organization growth, and many other micros and macroeconomic factors. In any given scenario, two executives struggle and work for better compensation and rewards for their works. This difference in distribution, according to Feinbe rg, is based on the five factors of equality, need, merit and achievement, parting or due re device, and effort. As in a tournament marginal difference, of efforts changes the rewards one gets in the business environment people at akin rank often face a similar situation. Even if a company pays same to the employees to justify the raise or promotion one has to work hard for that. In the tournament model performance and payment are directly promotional to each other. It explains the motivation and productivity of workers along with the payment or growth perspective. As in the case of any sport or race where the marginal difference in the performance of an athlete can turn the silver to gold or bronze to no medal at all. The same thing is applicable in the case of people working in any organisation. The promotions or raise in the salaries are linked with the performance. In a broad framework tournament model it does not include authoritative important points like performance of new employee, performance of people at the optimum level of the organisation.
Friday, June 14, 2019
Blog - Essay ExampleIn response, the Cleveland Indians Baseball Team has responded to the racism critics by backing itself up for having recreated its on-line(prenominal) logo as a throwback to its Indians blue C logo that the team used between the 1915 and 1927. The team has adjusted its logo over measure since 1927 until the time it acqui exit its current logo which is a reconstruction of its original logo. Looking keenly at the Cleveland Indians logos since 1928 to present, there is a unique progression that is tie to racism.In 1928, the mascot used by the Cleveland Indians had a whole red painting, with just some few places bearing black color. In 1929-1932, they changed the logo to another mascot with red award and white helmet. In 1933-1938, there was a change of the logo to a mascot with a brown face and a brown and red helmet. sexual climax to 1938-1945, the mascot logo was changed to bear a red face and a white helmet again. In 1946 to 1950, the logo was changed to the head of a cartoon with a brown face and red and black helmet in the lead they changed the color in 1951-72 to a red face and red and white helmet. This went on with one more change before they finally acquired their current logo which is a red C from 2014 to present. All these are criticized to portray
Thursday, June 13, 2019
India Census - Assignment ExampleSahni (2011) stated that government is said to have been campaigning against abortion and turn on selection but is dumb ineffective because of the fall number of girls. Some of the reasons of Indias skewed sex ratio include female person feticide, pre-sex selection methods such as ultrasound machines, attitudes towards female children and traditional practices of the country (Sahni 2011).According to Ravi Verma, a director of the Asia office of International Center for Research in Women, Indian society is the major reason of the sex preference of the citizens. Even the improvement on wealth, education and technology are to be blamed why this problem in India is still not resolved. Verma even up emphasized that the attitude of the society towards sons and daughters is the key to help improve this phenomenon.It is genuinely unhappy to know that this kind of problem on sex discrimination is very widespread in India. This discrimination came to a poi nt of pre-sex selection and female feticide. The government must therefore take more serious actions to help the diminishing number of female children in the country. The government has the power to do this. Thus female Indians future depends on the hands of the government and the society itself.Sahni, D. (2011). India Census Reflects a Grim Reality for Girls. India RealTime The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from
Wednesday, June 12, 2019
Banking analysing through economics the Spanish banking system - Essay ExampleGlobalization has brought somewhat the integration of the world grocery stores. In this sense the global market has tended to move towards a perfect and pure market structure as defined in the economic theory hitherto the exact form of global markets have remained far from the theoretical ideals of perfect and pure. Regardless of the product or service that is be studied it is noticeable that all of a sudden the information flow has become more rapid, regulatory structures have been oriented more towards free market structures and the movement of capital and permission to access local markets has become freer. This has encouraged national businesses to aim to be global businesses and the global businesses to target national markets. However, the indention in the control of market shares in the past has tended more towards monopolies but, structures have not stayed the same, these have become, in genera l, oligopolies. This aspect of globalisation has thus changed the very disposition of competition and the markets will move forward into a new direction of perfect markets if globalisations are sustained and its true objective is achieved. The Banking industry is no exception. opposition in the banking sector depends largely upon the efficiency with which financial services are produced, the quality of financial service produced and the relative degree of innovation in the sector. (Claaessens and Laeven). This however depends upon how the banking sector competes with each other and what is the nature of the financial markets. This is important because the nature of the markets in the financial sector Banks enable consumers to do essential functions such as saving, investing and storing money or money equivalents.
Tuesday, June 11, 2019
Pediatric Palliative Care - Essay ExampleFrom that point of view, implementation of pediatric palliative safekeeping would need to involve palliative care networks and all childrens services (Carroll et al., 2007). The key feature of pediatric palliative care is involvement of the adults, in many cases who are parents. The right for families to have their views perceive is of prime importance. This right extends to research, and the research should incorporate an adequate representation of the reality of lived experiences of both the children and their caregivers. Small-scale research findings on their own are unlikely to wanton a crucial role in policy-making or provision. It has been expected that the impact of the evidence may gradually enter into the thinking of policymakers and practitioners (Rallison and Moules, 2004). Palliative care nursing that support the life-limited children and their families must draw on the findings from the relevant recent research. In this assignm ent, the palliative care nursing and its role will be draw followed by an examination of best practices as evidenced in recent literature.Palliative care services have rich opportunities to support children and their families through life history out their stated ethos in practice. Pediatric palliative care with its broad approach to symptom management, psycho cordial, spiritual, and practical care has the potential to help enormously in the care and relief of suffering of these children and their families, particularly as it is relatively inexpensive. In other words, pediatric palliative care embraces a philosophy that attends to the psychological, physical, spiritual and social needs of the child and their family (Maunder, 2006). This care has been described as a concept where there is a shift of emphasis from conventional care that focuses on bill of life towards a commitment to care which enhances quality of life. It has been recommended that palliative care should be an inte gral part of clinical practice, available to all child patients. much(prenominal) a philosophy presents a major challenge both clinically and culturally, demanding that all countenancers including nurses work together to ensure seamless care that will equip the needs of medically vulnerable young people and their families (Powaski, 2006).Increasing numbers of very sick children are surviving as a result of advances in medicine and nursing. Many children die in a year as a result of progressive specifys needing palliative care. Some have a life-limiting condition with some palliative care needs, for half of whom the needs will be substantial. Evidence suggests that while some undergraduate medical and nursing educational programs provide a general overview of palliative care, they often include only a brief review of the pediatric specialty. A model for structured reflection on palliative care nursing has been described that focused on exploration of the challenges of palliative care nursing. The model was based on 6 types of knowledge or ways of knowing, scientific, personal, socio-political, spiritual, ethical, and aesthetic. The model required nurses to reflect on the aims of the professional interactions, and the sources of the knowledge used for specific types of practice in palliation. It also included questions focused on whether actions were consistent with beliefs of patient autonomy, promotion of quality of life, compassionate care, family involvement, and symptom control (Souter,
Monday, June 10, 2019
Internal bind Over Financial Reporting - Essay ExampleThe editing paper Internal Control Over Financial Reporting talks about the internal control over financial reporting and performing an integrated audit of Ford take Company and Toyota Motor Corporation.According to the Securities and flip Commission, disclosure procedures and controls includes those procedures and controls put in place to ensure that the information required to be availed in financial reports is processed, recorded, summarized and account within the required timeframe as stipulated in the SEC rules. These procedures and control policy have an organized framework that enables an issuer to disclose the information required in the Exchange Act reports. The accumulated report is presented to the management of the issuer who include financial and principal executive officers within an appropriate time limit that enable implementation obsolescent decisions on the required disclosures. Despite their differences, in ternal controls and disclosure control overlap over financial reporting.Therefore, inherent limitations are those unintentional errors or intentional misstatements that whitethorn reflect in financial reports despite proper design and monitoring process. Comments on these limitations on financial report and statements aim at highlighting the impossibleness of a 100% assurance control system, and that the information in the statements is material-error free. And the assurance that internal control does not contain any material weaknesses is essential to a management team.
Sunday, June 9, 2019
The current strengths and weaknesses of superior - Essay ExampleThe latter part of the essay deals with some measures that the bank of England could adopt so as to be able to resolve the particular problem that the United Kingdom is facing due to its weak currency.The note value of the currency is important for any(prenominal) country because it determines, as Vlaar (2007) states, the position of the country in the world market. The exchange prise (the ratio between the local and foreign currencies) takes into account the present value of the currency of a particular country and ascertains the differences with respect to other currencies. This comparison is necessary because this way the effect of the exchange rates on the import and the export growth can be studied. Exchange rates are a critical determinant of the success of countries in terms of economic development. The impacts of the exchange rate on the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) are far reaching and so it is pertinent t o study the values of currencies with respect to other currencies.In this paper, I would focusing on the current value of sterling, the currency of the United Kingdom, and compare it to the values of the other major currencies thereby determining its strengths and weaknesses. For the purpose of research I maintain analyzed a few literature reviews.From the study of the value of sterling in the past two to three years one fact that is quite an evident is that the value of sterling has been falling continuously. Although there have been minor deviances from the overall downward trend, for instance the value of the pound sterling rose by one penny against the Euro in February 2009, the value of pound has fallen by 16% with respect to the American Dollar and by 21% with respect to the Euro since primeval 2008, as Hyde (2010) states. There was a point in September 2009 according to Steiner et al. (2009) when the value of the sterling was even less than 1 . The rate at which the sterl ing was exchanged to the Euro was just 0.99.The falling
Saturday, June 8, 2019
Why Shiller and Fama can won the Nobel Prize - Essay ExampleAccording to their views, their study impacts the way individuals use up to save and how governments choose to stimulate economies. They explain that poor pricing can lead to economic bubbles and result into financial market crash leading to a financial crisis. The methods the deuce-ace economists form a useful tool in academic research. Their theories and studies are clear and simple such that any psyche who is not in the pay major can understand what they discuss on asset prices (Nobel Media AB, 1). Fama stipulates that it is nearly impossible to predict short term changes in stock prices. If a person is interested in stock investment, the knowledge of how stocks trade in the past week may not help predict what will happen in the coming week (Nobel Media AB, 1). He carries out a demonstration that shows the assimilation of new information as dividend announcements and stock splits into share values. Shiller comes along to demonstrate long-run pattern in stock price changes (Nobel Media AB, 1). Through his research, he demonstrates that the stock prices fluctuate more than underlying fundamentals such as dividend yields. Hansen put his thoughts on research and helped answer the questions of stock prices by using his generalized method of moments, and using statistical models that incorporated asset prices. The findings of the three economists led to the popularity of index currency to the general public. The study of risk and field of behavioral finance was exposed to the public domain for scrutiny.Carrying out the right predictions of asset prices for the future is a sternly task. Even so, it is possible to foresee the future broad course of these prices basing the analysis on longer periods such as the next three or v years to come (Nobel Media AB, 1). These findings were the attributes of the laureates, Fama, Hansen, and
Friday, June 7, 2019
Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell EssayNineteen Eighty-Four is George Orwells unswervingly grim vision of a dystopian future. The author always intended it as more warning than prophecy, so that even though its title run into has passed, its lessons closely the dangers of conformity, mental coercion, and verbal deception retain their validity and relevance. The new(a) depicts a world divided into three totalitarian superpowers that are constantly at war with one a nonher Oceania, dominated by the former United States Eurasia, dominated by Western Europe and Eastasia, dominated by China and Japan. Since the novel belongs to the genre of the dystopia, a negative Utopia, much of its content is necessarily involved in describing Oceanian societynot only in the features of its everyday life, much of which reflects British life in 1948 (a year whose inverted numbers may kick in suggested the novels title), but also in detailed explanations of the historical origins of Ingsoc an d Oceania, as well as its official language, Newspeak. DiscussionA key ingredient in this chilling documentation of eroding human freedom is its depiction of a corrupted language, Newspeak, Orwells brilliant rendering of that degraded language of politicians and sophists which hides rather then reveals truth. (Orwell, 19) Orwell, rather clumsily in the view of some critics, gives much of this knowledge in the form of a book-within-a-book, the supposed handbook of the revolutionaries, and an appendix to the novel itself about Newspeak.The purpose of Newspeak was to drastically reduce the number of actors line in the English language in order to eliminate ideas that were deemed dangerous and, most importantly, seditious to the totalitarian dictator, Big Brother and the Party. Thought crime, the mere act of thinking about ideas like Freedom or Revolution, was punishable by torture and brainwashing. Newspeak was the sinister answer. A character in 1984 describes it succinctly Do not you see that the altogether aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought?In the end, we shall make thought crime literally impossible because there will be no words in which to express it. The whole climate of thought will be different. In fact, there will be no thought as we realize it now. Is our real world today, at the beginning of the new millennium, so very different on a fundamental level from what Orwell predicted? There have been interminable refutations of the 1984 dystopia Totalitarianism is on the wane, Communism is dead, there is more prosperity, more community, more freedom than ever before.(Orwell, 37) Arguably, on a geo-political level, the global information economy has promoted the causes of love-in-idleness and freedom, preventing potentially worse atrocities and repression in hotspots such as China and the Balkans. The bottom line is you have no freedom, no power, you feel no need or desire for freedom or power, and, whats worse you do not even know tha t you do not have it. AnalysisCritics of every aspect on the political spectrum, no matter what their views about the validity of Orwells social analysis in Nineteen Eighty-Four, agree on one topic Considered politically and historically, Nineteen Eighty-Four is one of the most important books of the twentieth century. The bleakness of its vision of a totalitarian society became a profound warning, and Orwells accuracy was attested by dissidents in Eastern Europe and Russia both before and after the dissolution of the Soviet empire Orwell, said a Russian philosopher, understood the soul, or soullessness of Soviet life.Not only did the words Newspeak and doublethink enter the English language but Russians refer to the Novoyaz of Communist Party language. (Orwell, 67) Some critics have pointed out that another layer of meaning exists within the novel. They connect Orwells dissection of Oceanian society to his portrayal of his depressing and unhappy preparatory school days, which he discussed in his essay Such, Such Were the Joys (1952).Young English boys were removed from the warmth and security of their families, mini-societies governed by love and respect, and hurled into a world dominated by fear, repression, and an all-pervading sense of guilt. There, Orwell was remand not only in a hostile world but in a world of good and evil where the rules were such that it was actually not possible for me to keep them. In such a society, rebellion or even dissent becomes almost impossible, and even personal relationships are viewed with hostility and scruple by the ruling class, that is, the masters and proprietors of the school.(Orwell, 81) Conclusion As a true anti-utopian novel, one in which the horrors of totalitarianism are amply illustrated, Nineteen Eighty-Four serves as a poignant reminder of the preciousness of free thought and an open society and whatever the author has predicted in this novel has one way or the other turned out to be true.Works Cited Orw ell, George (1949). Nineteen Eighty-Four. New York Harcourt, Brace Co. pg 15-129.
Thursday, June 6, 2019
The Impact of Training and Development on the Employees of the Insurance Sector in Jordan Essay Example for Free
The Impact of Training and Development on the Employees of the Insurance Sector in Jordan EssayThe focus of all aspects of Human preference Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers , all told employees want to be valuable and remain competitive in the labour market at all times. This can only be achieved through employee readying and suppuration.Employees entrust always want to develop career-enhancing skills, which will always lead to employee motivation and retention. There is no doubt that a well-trained and developed staff will be a valuable asset to the company and thereby increasing the chances of his efficiency in discharging his or her duties, so our main focus about the practises of prep and development in the insurance sector as it is a very important service sector . And to study the relationship between training and development with job satis faction and morale among employees , inter personal relationship and customer satisfaction , employee motivation, efficiencies in processes, financial gain , capacity to adopt new technologies and methods , aim in strategies and products , employee turnover , company image and productivity. METHODOLOGYWe are going to examine two of the most well-known companies in Jordan (Arab insurance company and Jordanian insurance company) through a qualitative research , data will be collected through a couple of interviews with some of the employees of the two companies from many a(prenominal) managerial levels and by gathering primary information through literature review from recent journal papers and books. GROUP MEMBERS * Sara khano * Bashar Kafafi * Lama Daas * Eman Khalil * Shireen Shakaa
Methods Used to Study the Brain EssayA contour of procedures are used by psychologists to study the functions of different areas of the promontory. Some of them are very old rules and outdated some of them are most recent in origin and frequently used by modern investigators. The methods help us to study the localization of the functional areas of the adept.One of these methods is the stimulation method. A specific spell of the brain may be speedd either by electric current or by chemicals. Through electrical stimulation, we can only stimulate the desired part of the brain. But by chemical methods, we can stimulate or defunct a particular part of the brain for a situated period of time and observe their effects on behavior.another(prenominal) method is the Electrical Recording or Action Potential Method.The rhythmical electrical discharges of the brain are recorded by an instrument called electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG can detect minute electrical activities of the b rain cells during sleep, arousal and activity. The brain parts having great electrical activity can be linked with behaviors and sensations of the body. This will tell how the body surfaces are represented in the brain.The Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) is a newer method in which thousands of separate X-rays are taken at slightly different angles, and the computer constructs an image of the structures of the brain by combining these X-rays. It is very useful for demo abnormalities in the structure of the brain such as swelling and enlargement of certain parts. But it does not provide information about brain activity.Another method is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). It produces a strong magnetic field in which the persons head is positioned. The radio waves directed at the brain shit the hydrogen atoms to emit signals, which are analyzed by a computer. The details of the MRI are superior to CAT scan, because it can distinguish between nearly related brain structures.Due to its importance, you might think the brain would be a little more forthcoming about its design and function. Fortunately, the human brain alsoprovides us with the remarkable ability and ingenuity to study the human brain, a skill in which brains of other life forms decidedly come up short. The study of the brain has yielded remarkable findings, and advances in brain research have created a better understanding of the way we function and life itself.
Wednesday, June 5, 2019
Medical Treatment Using Computed Tomography (CT)Breast PlanPart OneTreatment Site / diagnosis Left BreastTreatment Modality 2 Dimensional tangentialType of Patient Data Computed tomography and virtual showTechnique Isocentricprescription drug Iso pane 40GY in 15Part TwoComputed tomography (CT) was employed as an imaging modality for this finenessment. In general, CT is the standard imaging modality employed. This is ascribable to the ability of CT to provide a 3 Dimensional image of the tumour and the ordinary anatomy in that area, CT is particularly effective in visualising bony anatomy. It also provides the electron density data essential to enable accurate dose calculation and visualizening. Although CT scanning is the standard for treatment localisation, charismatic resonance imagining (MRI) are superior in defining soft tissue and tumour metastasis and so it is now advisable to employ CT-MRI fusion imaging in localize to improve the accuracy of tumour localisation for tr eatment (Bhide and Nutting 2010).Tangential fields are normally used in the treatment of tumours of the rapper. Virtual simulation (v-sim) is employed in order to generate lateral and medial tangential fields. V-sim ensures accurate field matching and acceptable reportage of the pap tissue, the chest environ and the surgical or mastectomy scar (Barrett and Dobbs et al. 2009 and Moran and Haffty 2009).Part ThreeThe choice of tool energy is heavily dependent on patient size and separation in general the chosen beam energy is 6 Megavoltage. For patients with a separation greater than 22cm, higher energy beams are usually used in order to improve dose homogeneity. Higher energy beams reduce the skin sparing effect of a lower energy therefore wield should be interpreted to ensure there is sufficient coverage of the superficial breast, mastectomy scar and clinical boarders (Barrett, Dobbs et al. 2009).The breast is traditionally treated by means of two dimensional conformal tangentia l beams. The beam arrangement is a lateral and medial beam. The field boarders are marked up clinically, usually by a specialist radiographer. The lateral beam is usually at mid axilla and the medial beam at sternal level. The beams are at tangents to each other avoid irradiation of the tit, lung, dose uniformity and no dose overlap to the contralateral breast (Lee and Harris 2009).Segmented beams were also selected in order to improve Planning Target Volume (PTV) coverage and allow for Multi Leaf Collimator (MLC) shielding without compromising coverage of the PTV whilst shielding out undesired hot spots that naturally happen in the inframammary fold of the breast tissue (Nakamura, Hatanaka et al. 2011).According to a study by Purdy 2004 ICRU 50 guidelines states that the isodose diffusion within the PTV must be amidst 95% 107% .In order to achieve best dose distribution wedged beams are employed, wedges are tissue compensators that account for missing tissue in order to impro ve the homogeneity of the dose distribution (Barrett, Dobbs et al. 2009). This is particularly important in breast treatments due to the contour of the breast. The anterior surface of the breast is less dense than the tissue toward the chest bulwark, hotspots tend to occur around the areola for this reason wedges in this plan are 60 and orientated with the thick end anterior in order to distribute the dose away from the nipple and conform more homogenously to the chest wall. There are also wedges on the segments in order to improve dose homogeneity in the superior/ inferior direction and to ensure acceptable PTV coverage (Haffty, Buchholz et al. 2008).Part 4There is acceptable coverage of the CTV, in breast treatment, the aim is to treat all the breast tissue to the deep fascia the 95% isodose should conform to the chest wall but not include the pectoralis major (Barrett, Dobbs et al. 2009). The breast tissue is covered by the 95% isodose line and it adheres well to the muscles of the chest wall. There are no hot spots present within the plan due to the optimal use of tissue compensators as mentioned above. According to a study by Purdy in 2004, ICRU guidelines isodse distribution must be kept between 95% 107%, MLC shielding on the segments were employed in order to shield any hotspots present within the CTV without compromising target coverage or causing the plan to become too cold.Part 5The critical organs that were contoured were the left lung. Although there is no dose volume histogram associated with breast treatments, there should be no more than 2cm of lung volume included in the treatment field in order to prevent late toxicities such as lung fibrosis and pneumonitis. It is also advisable to contour the heart on left sided breast treatments.Part 6This plan is clinically acceptable, however as the treatment is being delivered to the left side, the heart should be taken into consideration. Deep inspiration snorkel hold (DIBH) is becoming more common for left sided breast treatments. DIBH involves treating the patient on inspiration and breath hold through coaching either auditory or visually or both. During inspiration the breast tissue is lifted off the chest wall and thus results in less cardiac tissue and lung being irradiated (Vikstrm, Hjelstuen et al. 2011).Not all patients are suitable for DIBH if they cannot remain in breath hold for the continuance of time it takes to deliver the beam. However it is still important to remove the heart from the high dose area, this is achievable by the use of cardiac shielding created by MLCS. Although this has shown a reduction in the dose received by the heart, it also risks underdoing of the target (Bartlett, Yarnold et al. 2013).ReferencesBarrett, A., J. Dobbs, et al. (2009). Practical Radiotherapy Planning Fourth Edition, CRC Press.Bartlett, F. R., J. R. Yarnold, et al. (2013). Multileaf Collimation Cardiac Shielding in Breast Radiotherapy Cardiac Doses are Reduced, But at What Cos t? Clinical Oncology 25(12) 690-696.Bhide, S. and C. Nutting (2010). Recent advances in radiotherapy. BMC medicine 8(1) 25.Haffty, B. G., T. A. Buchholz, et al. (2008). Should intensity-modulated radiation therapy be the standard of care in the conservatively managed breast cancer patient? Journal of Clinical Oncology 26(13) 2072-2074.Lee, L. J. and J. R. Harris (2009). Innovations in radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer. The Breast 18 S103-S111.Moran, M. S. and B. G. Haffty (2009). Radiation Techniques and Toxicities for Locally innovational Breast Cancer. Seminars in Radiation Oncology 19(4) 244-255.Nakamura, N., S. Hatanaka, et al. (2011). Quantification of cold spots caused by geometrical uncertainty in field-in-field techniques for whole breast radiotherapy. Japanese journal of clinical oncology 41(9) 1127-1131.Purdy, J. A. (2004). trustworthy ICRU definitions of volumes limitations and future directions. Seminars in Radiation Oncology, Elsevier.Vikstrm, J., M. H. Hjelstu en, et al. (2011). Cardiac and pulmonary dose reduction for tangentially irradiated breast cancer, utilizing deep inspiration breath-hold with audio-visual guidance, without compromising target coverage. Acta Oncologica 50(1) 42-50.
Monday, June 3, 2019
Features of Goodpastures SyndromeIntroductionGoodpastures syndrome, a rare autoimmune sickness is characterized by anti-GBM (anti-glomerular basement tissue layer) antibodies attacking glomerular and dental consonant basement membranes of the kidneys and lungs respectively. It was first reported by Dr. Ernest William Goodpasture in 1919 and first used by Stanton and Tange in 1957 in their case studies involving nine patients with the pulmonary-renal syndrome. 1, 2Clinical Features The onset of this malady ranges from the ages of 20-30 and 60-70 especially in young men in their late twenties or in men and women over sixty years of age study. 3The diagnostic techniques involved in detection of Goodpastures syndrome include i) urine analysis that detects kidney damage by presence of high number of red blood cells or protein in the urine take ii) blood tests showing the presence of anti-GBM antibodies iii) x-rays that can show anomalies in lung anatomy or iv) biopsies that involve im aging of a kidney tissue sample to demonstrate glomeruli characterised by crescent-shaped structures and lines of antibodies attached to the GBM. 4While Goodpastures syndrome constitutes the representation of clinical features like rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and pulmonary hemorrhage from any cause, Goodpasture disease similarly includes the presence of anti-GBM antibodies in addition to the other characteristics. The term anti-GBM disease constitutes a patient with the typical autoantibodies, irrespective of clinical symptoms and characteristic features. 1,5The clinical manifestations associated with Goodpastures syndrome include stabbing renal failure resulting from rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis along with pulmonary hemorrhage that might prove fatal. The symptoms in relation to it consist of bleeding of lungs, kidney failure, hematuria, proteinuria, general malaise, fatigue, and incubus loss. 1,6,7,8,9The exact etiology of this syndrome is not known h owever there seem to be genetic and environmental risk factors. The factors beingness i) exposure to organic solvents or hydrocarbons ii) smoking and drugs iii) infection iv) exposure to metal particulate matter v) lymphocyte-depletion therapy. 1,5,10The characteristic pathology in individuals experiencing the Goodpastures Syndrome can be detected by immunofluorescence staining technique of the immunoglobulin G on the GBM that shows smooth diffuse linear patterns. 11Hemodialysis, plasma exchange, cyclophosphamide drugs and immunosuppressive agents like methylprednisolone pulse therapy or oral administration of prednisolone are possible treatments for Goodpastures syndrome. 12,13,14 raw material Cellular and Molecular MechanismsThe localization of immunoglobulin IgG deposits at sites of inflammation within the pulmonary and renal basement membranes shows Goodpastures syndrome (a take a leak of the anti-GBM disease) to be an antibody-mediated autoimmune disease. The unhealthful rol e of these antibodies has been confirmed bytransplantation of circulating or kidney-eluted anti-GBM antibodies to Rhesus monkey or human kidney allografts that result in the development of the disease.A lineament II hypersensitivity reaction occurs when antibodies are targeted against extracellular matrix (ECM) specific antigens. 15The hypersensitivity response affects all organs in the body of which collagen is a constituent but the dental and glomerular basement membranes are more prone to the effect. This discrepancy is a result of increased accessibility of epitopes (antigen molecules facilitating attachment to a matching antibody) linked to overexpression of 3 collagen chains in the respective basement membranes allowing access and formation of antibodies. 16While 3NC1 antibodies are the most common in patients with Goodpastures syndrome, 5NC1 antibodies are less prevalent. Sometimes antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody ANCA can also be present. 5,17The disorder develops ant ibodies that target 3 chain of basement membrane collagen (type IV collagen) present in alveoli in lungs and in the glomeruli that form the filtering units of the kidneys within the nephrons. These structures contain the basement membrane with collagen as its essential component that differentiates the epithelia from the underlying tissue. The conformational epitopes of the Goodpasture antigen are localized within 2 regions in the carboxyl terminal, noncollagenous (NC1) landing field of a type IV collagen chain, 3(IV)NC1. 1, 5, 18. Upon interaction of the anti-GBM antibodies with the conformational epitope of the GBM glycoproteins, the attendant pathway of the immune system gets activated. This results in infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes. The severely damaged GBM induces reflux of fibrinogen into the Bowman space, fibrinogen polymerizes to fibrin through the proliferation of procoagulant factors from activated monocytes, lead story to a crescent formation.19Goodpastures syndrome is linked with specific HLA types. Both positive (HLA-DR15) and negative (HLA-DR7) associations are defined and being used to develop an understanding of antigen presentation, tolerance and autoimmunity. 20,21,22Recent DevelopmentsRecent developments like the plasmapheresis technique, steroidal drugs, and immunosuppressive therapy have drastically ameliorated the course of the medical condition in comparison to yesteryears, in which Goodpasture syndrome was deemed fatal. 23Zhao et al., demonstrate the significant role of 5NC1-specific antibodies in pathogenesis of Goodpastures disease and also re-confirm 345 collagen IV molecule as the original GP autoantigen. 17The invention of a drug, now patented, with its active element containing boronthat constitutes inhibitors of arginase activity has claimed remedial effects in the pathological state of Goodpastures Syndrome. 24A recently developed, patented prophylaxis for glomerulonephritis resulting from Goodpastures syndrome comprises of administration of a therapeutically effective amount of an IL-6 antibody that binds with or regulates the expression or activity of a mammalian IL-6 polypeptide. 25ConclusionsGoodpastures Syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by anti-GBM antibodies attacking glomerular and dental basement membranes. The innate immune response comprises of (i) cell death (ii) polymorphonuclear cell releasing neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, antigens and monocytes to infiltrate the glomerulus. The adaptive immune response triggers the classical pathway of complement activated by antigen-antibody complex formation, and type II hypersensitivity reaction. Here antigens are targeted against cell- specific and tissue specific antigens (chiefly the connective tissue).Unanswered QuestionsCurrently, there is a mickle of research focusing on deciphering the causative agents of the harmful antibodies that lead to the development of Goodpastures syndrome. Eviden ce from this research can lead to novel drug discovery, eventually leading to a potential definitive cure for Goodpastures syndrome. 17The exact the genetic determinants that constitute the etiology of Goodpastures syndrome are yet to be found.BibliographySalama AD, Pusey CD. Goodpasture syndrome and other antiglomerular basement membrane diseases. In Gilbert SJ, Weiner DE, eds. National Kidney Foundations Primer on Kidney Diseases. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA Elsevier Saunders 2014 chap 21.Benoit, F. L., D. B. Rulon, G. B. Theil, P. D. Doolan, and R. H. Watten. Goodpastures syndrome a clinicopathologic entity. The American journal of medicine 37, no. 3 (1964) 424-444.Hudson B, Tryggvason K, Sundaramoorthy M, Neilson E. Alport syndrome, goodpasture syndrome, and type IV Collagen. New Engl J Med 2003 3482543-56.Fervenza, Fernando C. Goodpasture Syndrome NIDDK National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https//www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/glo merular-diseases/goodpasture-syndrome (accessed March 1, 2017).Phelps RG, Turner AN. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and Goodpasture disease. In Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege J, eds. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA Elsevier Saunders 2015 chap 24.Lahmer T, Heemann U. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease a rare autoimmune disorder affecting the kidney and the lung. Autoimmun Rev 201212169-73.Pedchenko V, Bondar O, Fogo AB, Vanacore R, Voziyan P, Kitching AR, et al. Molecular architecture of the Goodpasture autoantigen in anti-GBM nephritis. N Engl J Med2010363343-54.Salant David J. Goodpastures disease new secrets revealed. N Engl J Med 2010 363388-91.Dammacco F, Battaglia S, Gesualdo L, Racanelli V. Goodpastures disease a report of ten cases and a review of the literature. Autoimmun Rev 2013121101-8.Jones, Joanne L., Sara AJ Thompson, Priscilla Loh, Jessica L. Davies, Orla C. Tuohy, Allison J. Curry, Laura Azzopardi et al. Human a utoimmunity later lymphocyte depletion is caused by homeostatic T-cell proliferation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 50 (2013) 20200-20205.MD, Edward. 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