Friday, May 31, 2019
Discontent in Great Expectations   Many people strive for things that are out of their reach. In the novel Great Expectations, Charles Dickens shows the themes of personal inhalation and discontent with present conditions. The main character, Pip, shows early on in the story that he is unhappy with his current situation. Throughout the story he strives for the things that are beyond his reach, and is apathetic to the things that he can obtain. Pip demonstrates this by striving for Estella when he could have Biddy, and yearning to be a gentleman when he could be a blacksmith.   The first way that Pip demonstrates these themes is by reaching for things that are unattainable to him. For example, Pip is in love with Estella, but he cant have her because she doesnt like him. as well Miss Havishams man-hating ways have brushed off on her, and she wants nothing to do with Pip. other thing that Pip strives for is to flex a gentleman. He cannot become a gentleman, ho wever, because he is just a commoner. He is very smitten, for example, with the beautiful young lady at Miss Havishams and she is more beautiful than anybody ever was and I admire her dreadfully and I want to be a gentleman on her account (780). Thus, Pip wants to become a gentleman only for Estella.   Another way that Pip shows his discontent with his present life is by not wanting to be a blacksmith when it would be very practical for him. Pips brother-in-law is a blacksmith which would pretend it easy for him to learn the trade. Also, Miss Havisham agreed to pay for his apprenticeship, yet Pip insists that he is better than that and is upset by that fact that he is just a commoner. He states his dissatisfaction with my home, my trade and with everything (773). Pip also turns away(predicate) Biddy when she is something that is obtainable to him. Biddy is somebody in the story that really loves Pip, yet he turns her away and uses her to get what he wants. Pip als o gives the impression that he is better than Biddy when he is no less a commoner than she is.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Satire is a literary work that uses humor, hyperbole, and derision to ridicule the human behaviors and customs. Rather than being judgmental, many writers go for satire to convey their innovative ideas to change certain aspects of society. From the many writers that used satire to condemn the actions of society, Jonathan Swifts, Gullivers travels, stands as one of the best satirical work in human history. Published in 1726, Gullivers travels is an adventure of Lemuel Gulliver whose voyage turns into a series of disasters to various strange islands where he lives with humans and animals of various sizes, behaviors, and philosophies. Through the usage of wide metaphor and symbolism, Swift brings to light numerous religious and political follies of 18th century English society through the characterizations of the Lilliputians.Lemuel Gulliver is the third son of his father. He was innate(p) in the peaceful county of Nottinghamshire, where he attended post-secondary school at Emanuel C ollege. He became an English surgeon after attending medical school at the prestigious University of Leiden. Even though, Gulliver is a smart man, he is without a doubt gullible. He has a simplistic unbiased view of the world. He believes everyone is just as fair(a) and modest as he is while in reality the world is full of corrupted individuals. After University, Gulliver sets out to be a voyager. In his almost significant voyage, he travels as a surgeon on the merchant ship, Antelope. While in sea, a catastrophic storm devastates the ship causing the crewmembers to die. Subsequently, Gulliver washes up on the shores of Lilliput as the only survivor from the Antelope. After waking up from his tribulation, he finds that he is captured and tied down... ...he egg breaking ceremony to emphasize the fatuousness of any religious war.(Downie) Throughout the book, Swifts usage of satire brings to light how in the 18th and 19th century the English society was morally, socially, and pol itically corrupted. Swift makes it realise that every normal person wants to be concerned with honor, gratitude, common sense, and kindness, but on the contrary human intentions are always strayed into a wrong path. kit and caboodle CitedSwift, Jonathan, and Alfred Bradly Gough. Gullivers Travels. Oxford Eng. Clarendon, 1915. Print.Soens, Lewis A. Gullivers Satire. Google Books. Web. 02 Apr. 2012. .Ewald, Wiliam Bragg. The masks of Jonathan Swift. Oxford, Great Britain Basil Blackwell, 1954.Downie, J.A Jonathan Swift Political writer. London Routledge and kegan Paul, 1984
wildness in schools has cattle ranch widely throughout the nation. This has caused many another(prenominal) problems among students, families, faculty of schools, and residents of the areas. However, there are many possible ways we spate stop all this violence in schools. Almost three-fourths of the United States teens are afraid of violent crime amongst their peers (Apfel 23). Violence in schools has become a big problem in todays society. With all the people being injured or killed in schools by guns and other weapons, to a greater extent and more people are getting more weapons to bring in to schools. Nearly half of all males and one-third of all students including females said they could easily defend a handgun if they wanted to (Glazer 14). The cause of violence can be blamed on many things but 1 mainly. And that one thing is drugs and gangs. directly that more people are selling and buying drugs, people are making money to buy weapons. Gangs, since they came around violen ce catch been increasing steadily. The spread of gangs and drugs has also been implicated in the increasing violence of school youths (Glazer 14). Experts have also said that most violent conflicts among school-age children can be traced back to long- boiling disputes (Apfel 21). Carrying guns and other weapons around schools is becoming more and more popular all around the world. People think that carrying guns around schools with them will make them cool or fit in with other people like themselves. Theyre wrong. More and more people who are carrying guns around schools today are getting caught and having them taken away. Since schools have gotten metal detectors and scanners, they have cut down the rate of having handguns in schools by nearly 58%(Glazer 5). Security experts have reported that there is no assure that a metal detector will solve the problem of violence in schools, even though it offers a highly visible symbol to the fraternity (Apfel 22). Even if the schools with all the gun violence in their schools do put in metal detectors at the front entrances of schools, their are many ways kids can sneak in weapons to school. In 1990 congress made it a felony to bring a gun within one thousand feet of any school down the stairs the Gun-Free School Zones provision of the 1990 crime prevention package. This law wont help very much because of the fact that students can sneak in weapons through tub windows, or an unguarded entrance during recess (Glazer 6).
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Clothing and Body Language in Literary Works and ArtThroughout life, clothing and body language atomic number 18 often utilized assources of emotional expression. These emotions can also be portrayed inliteraray works and artisitic displays, such as those of Poe, Baudelaire, domainet,and Warhol. In Poes Man of the Crowd, there are several descriptions ofdifferent types of people base on their appearances, but one particular man isfocused on by the narrator ascribable to his unique appearance. Baudelaires ThePainter of Modern Life emphasizes the emotional expressions of beauty andfashion expressed in art. Manet is an artist who paints scenes to his liking.All of his works were done in his studio and set up the way that he wanted them.He holds a particular focus on hands and women and the relationship between them.The positions and clothing that the men and women are set up in hold strongemotional implications about their feelings towards one another and the emotionsinvolved in the social setting.The opening of The Man of the Crowd, describes the emotions involvedin untold secrets and the deepest of crimes there are internal conflicts,struggles, anxieties, and agonous results due to the horror of the unsolvablecrimes. The possibility of these crimes is introduced through the man of thecrowd through his unseemingly unrecognizable expression The narrator describeshis thoughts of this man asThere arose confusedly and paradoxically within my mind, the ideas of vastmental power, of caution, of penuriousness, of avarice, of coolness, of malice,of blood-thirtstiness, of triumph, of merriment, of excessive terror, of intense- of supreme despair. I felt up singularly aroused, startled, fascinated. Howwild a history, I said to myself, is written within that bosomAlthough the narrator had never spoken to this man of the crowd, he wascompelled to follow him based on his expression that had never been viewed bythe narrator. He continued to follow the man of the crowd , noticing hispatterns of following people by the mass and his shambled cloting and heconcluded that he was the type and genious of deep crime. He refuses to bealone.Prior to viewing the man of the crowd, the narrator observed severaldifferent types of people, all of which were able to be establish through theiroutward appearances... ...p is not meant to be applied naturallyand should be used as a method of exhibition of their beauty. Although Baudelairedoes not describe the actions of women in the section of makeup, he clearlypraises women who wear makeup because of their holy nature and uncriticalness.Monet is able to express several emotions through his paintings,particularly through the arrangement and the video of the subjects in hiswork. In In The Conservatory, Manet focuses on the relationship between the manand the woman. The woman is properly togged up with buttons vertically lined upthrough her dress, therefore constricting her presense. She has a fixed gaze and isnot looking at the man. Although she is sitting comfortably, the woman has arigid appearance. The man is leaning over towards her and is dressed like adandy. The expressions on their faces and the way the man is leaning over thewoman and looking at her appears as though he is pleading for pardon orattention. The rims of her eyes are red adding the possibility of her cryingand an emphasis is placed upon their hands, which both contain wedding rings,suggesting that they are a married catch with problems.
The question Can struggle be justified? plagued mankind since the first warfare. The retributive war Theory holds that war can be just. The theory has evolved for thousands of years and modern theorists, such as Michael Walzer, author of Just and Unjust fights, puts forth criteria for a just war, such as jus ad bellum and jus in bello. Jus ad bellum includes reasons for going to war, and jus in bello deals with the people who wage war. The criteria in jus ad bellum include just cause, declaration by a strait-laced authority, right intention, a reasonable chance of success, the end proportional to the means, and war as a last resort. Jus in bello includes keeping innocents outside the field of war, and restrain the amount of wring used. Just War Theorists hold that all of these criteria must be followed for a war to be just. I will analyze The Just War Theories more or less debated arguments, self-defense, pre-emptive strikes, and the killing of innocents. In the second half o f this paper, I will briefly explain pacifism, and provide a counter argument for to each one Just War argument. Walzer includes self-defense in the just cause section of jus ad bellum. Walzer holds that states hold the right of self-defense by making an analogy to mortal rights. He contends that individuals have the right to self-defense. From this he infers that states also have that right of self-defense. Walzers inference is based on the logic that the state is a collection of individuals. He reasons that individuals cannot defend against an invading army, the military is a tool that the state uses to defend itself and its way of life. The right of self-defense for states also is justified by the premise that it is the debt instrument of the government to foster the people. John Locke... ...ve for a more perfect world rather than give up and accept hatred and death.Works ConsultedClark, Mark. The Paradox of War and Pacifism. ULeadership. 7 Oct 2002. <www.leaderu.com/soc ialsciences/clark.htmlHolmes, Robert. On War and Morality. Princeton Princeton University Press, 1989.Moseley, Alex. Just War Theory. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 3 Oct. 2002. <www.utm.edu/research/iep/j/justwar.htm.Moseley, Alex. Pacifism. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 3 Oct. 2002. <www.utm.edu/research/iep/p/pacifism.htm.Orend, Brian. War. Stanford Enyclopedia of Philosophy. 5 Oct 2002. <http//plato.stanford.edu/entries/war/Teichman, Jenny. Pacifism and the Just War. New York Basil Blackwell, 1986.Walzer, Michael. Just and Unjust Wars A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations. New York Basic Books, 1977. Just War and Pacifism Essay -- War Pacifism Peace EssaysThe question Can war be justified? plagued mankind since the first war. The Just War Theory holds that war can be just. The theory has evolved for thousands of years and modern theorists, such as Michael Walzer, author of Just and Unjust Wars, puts forth criteria for a just wa r, such as jus ad bellum and jus in bello. Jus ad bellum includes reasons for going to war, and jus in bello deals with the people who wage war. The criteria in jus ad bellum include just cause, declaration by a proper authority, right intention, a reasonable chance of success, the end proportional to the means, and war as a last resort. Jus in bello includes keeping innocents outside the field of war, and limiting the amount of force used. Just War Theorists hold that all of these criteria must be followed for a war to be just. I will analyze The Just War Theories most debated arguments, self-defense, pre-emptive strikes, and the killing of innocents. In the second half of this paper, I will briefly explain Pacifism, and provide a counter argument for each Just War argument. Walzer includes self-defense in the just cause section of jus ad bellum. Walzer holds that states have the right of self-defense by making an analogy to individual rights. He contends that individuals have the right to self-defense. From this he infers that states also have that right of self-defense. Walzers inference is based on the logic that the state is a collection of individuals. He reasons that individuals cannot defend against an invading army, the military is a tool that the state uses to defend itself and its way of life. The right of self-defense for states also is justified by the premise that it is the duty of the government to protect the people. John Locke... ...ve for a more perfect world rather than give up and accept hatred and death.Works ConsultedClark, Mark. The Paradox of War and Pacifism. ULeadership. 7 Oct 2002. <www.leaderu.com/socialsciences/clark.htmlHolmes, Robert. On War and Morality. Princeton Princeton University Press, 1989.Moseley, Alex. Just War Theory. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 3 Oct. 2002. <www.utm.edu/research/iep/j/justwar.htm.Moseley, Alex. Pacifism. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 3 Oct. 2002. <www.utm.edu/research/ie p/p/pacifism.htm.Orend, Brian. War. Stanford Enyclopedia of Philosophy. 5 Oct 2002. <http//plato.stanford.edu/entries/war/Teichman, Jenny. Pacifism and the Just War. New York Basil Blackwell, 1986.Walzer, Michael. Just and Unjust Wars A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations. New York Basic Books, 1977.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Wo manpowers Property Rights Movement in Nepal by Binda Pandey Nepal is close up running under strong feudalistic favorable values and norms. there were no clear provisions regarding Nepalese women and property obligations until 1975. Fol downcasting the UN Declaration of 1975, which was International Womens Year, the Nepali government began to celebrate International Womens sidereal day on the 8th of March. That same year, the gracious Code was amended and a clause on womens inheritance and property rights included.The clause states that if a charwoman carcass un matrimonial up to 35 geezerhood of season, she would have a right to inherit property. However, the amendment limits itself as it continues if she gets marriage after having property that should be returned back to the brothers by deducting the marriage cost. With the restoration of multi party democracy in 1990, the new constitution guaranteed that no whiz should be discriminated against on the basis of sex. Fu rther more than, in 1991, the government ratified the UN dominion on the Elimination of all told forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW-1979).The nations Womens Movement demanded that all in referities in Nepali law be eliminated and focused attention on the equal right of women to inherit property. All policy-making parties have included this demand in their respective election manifestos. The opposition party in parliament, the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist, has raise this event repeatedly but the government has neither considered it seriously, nor taken any initiation to amend discriminatory laws. In 1993, a case was finally filed in the Supreme Court with a demand to amend the Civil Code to give women equal rights over property. aft(prenominal) two years, in 1995, the Supreme Court issued a directive to the government to introduce a Bill in parliament that would guarantee a womans rights to inherit property. Following the Supreme Court directive, the Ministry of Women and Social well- universe drafted a Bill, popularly k nown as the Womens Property Rights Bill in order to amend the existing Civil Code. It was tabled for discussion in the 11th academic edge of Parliament. It took almost six years more to be passed through parliament, despite a number of other Bills being filmed in this time parliament.During this period, unalike semipolitical parties and parliamentary committees have made a number of changes to the original Bill. On July 17, 2001, a parliamentary committee unanimously decl bed that women should have equal rights to inherit property. However, the ruling Nepali Congress party expressed some disagreement and proposed that transmittable property should be returned back to respective brother/s if she gets marriage. The ruling party passed the Bill with a major(ip)ity vote in the Lower House of Parliament in October 2001. simply, the Upper House bailiwick Assembly, which is dominated by the opposition part y, failed the Bill and it was sent back to the Lower House for reconsideration. In due process, the Bill came back to the Lower House. Here, the ruling party was pressing for the Bill to be adopted while the main opposition party, supported by almost all women organizations, was pressing hard to guarantee inherited property rights for women equivalent to that of their brother/s. In this situation, there was a risk that the Bill would non be passed again and it mogul take several more years to go through another round of discussion.At this point, the opposition party made the tricky decision to vote for a Bill with its reservation on the provision, which do not recognize the equal right of sons or daughters to inherited property after marriage. Major Achievements through 11th Amendment in Civil Code-2020 (1963) After all these turning points, the bill was finally passed in parliament on March 14, 2002. It was sent to the King for his seal of approval and came into effect from Septe mber 27, 2002. The major achievements of this amendment ar as follows Womens Right to PropertyToday, women in Nepal can enjoy their right to inherit property from birth. But when they marry any property allow be returned to the p arnts family. The new law establishes a wifes equal right to her husbands property flyingly after marriage, rather than after she reaches 35 years of age or has been married for 15 years as before. A widows right to claim her sh atomic number 18 of property from the joint family after the death of her husband, and to use this property even if she gets re-married, is now withal established in law. Womens Right to DivorceThe Bill gives women the right to seek divorce from her husband if he harasses her somatogenicly or psychologically if he establishes internal similarityships with other women if he is incapable of producing boorren or if he is affected by and std, including hiv/aids. Previously, the law allowed a wife to claim only food contract from her husband for the five years following their divorce. Today, a woman can also claim property. Increase Penalty for Polygamy Polygamy is still rampant in Nepal, though it was decl bed illegal in 1975.Previously, those who violate the law in this regard face a punishment of 1 to 3 months in prison or a fine of 1000 to 2000 Rupees, or both. The new amendment increases these punishments, a man can now face 1 to 3 years in prison or a fine of 5000 25,000 Rupees, or both. Womens Right to Abortion Previously, abortion was illegal unless a doctor advised that a mothers life was endangered unless a foetus was aborted. Charged with this crime, more than five dozen women are imprisoned across Nepal. The new law legalizes abortion with some conditions.In normal cases a woman can make her own decision to go through with an abortion, though only at heart the kickoff 12 weeks of pregnancy. However, if the childs deli rattling endangers the mothers life, or if a women becomes enceint e through rape or incestuous sexual relations because abortions can take place within 18 weeks of pregnancy. Nepal is the first South Asian country to legalize abortion in this way. Stern Action against persons involved in Rape Rape is one of the major issues that has been raised by the womens front in Nepal.In this regard, the amendments to the civil code make the law stronger and increase the punishment for rapists. According to the new provisions, a rapist can be imprisoned for 10-15 years, if their dupe is below 10 years of age 7-10 years of imprisonment, if their victim is between 10 and 16 years of age and 5 7 years of imprisonment, if the victims age is above 16 years. In each category, an additional five years of prison can be given if the victim is a pregnant or disabled woman. Lacunas still remain It is a big achievement that women have been granted more legal rights with this amendment. But, there remain issues to be addressed.One major issue is to establish equal rig hts of property inheritance regardless of a womens marital status. The struggle to achieve rights based on gender is ongoing. If gender equality has not been achieved even when important goals are met then the struggle should continue. Challenges ahead There is a bigger challenge ahead of the womens causal agent. Until and unless women and men in wider society are aware of these new legal instruments, they cannot bring any remarkable change to the real lives of Nepalese women. In this regard, it is the role and responsibility of the womens movement to make women and men aware of their legal rights.At the same time, social and bureaucratic structures including those in civil society and government must institutionalize these changes. Only in this way will feudal and traditional attitudes towards womens rights change. To ensure the impact of these legal rights, authority should be delegated in a practical way and the implementing apparatus should be correctly managed. The womens move ment can lead the campaign to make people aware and to check that the law is implemented properly. We can prove that legal instruments are important tools and revivify a crucial role in creating gender equality in society. Updated version of the published article in Workers News 32, March 2002) Womens Movement Scenario in Nepal Nepal is one of the least developed countries in the adult male. Our socio- scotch life and hence the national life is largely dependent on agriculture. 42 portionage of the national income is being contributed by agriculture and almost 81 percent of the cosmos is employed in this domain. However, agriculture itself is in a very miserable condition. It has become remote of life to majority of the population, but its fruitfulness is decreasing every year.In the Nepalese scope, the women struggle started against British imperialism. Patriotic struggle against British imperialism dates back to the battle of 1814 at Nalapani. Women marched shoulder to sho ulder with men in the civil right movement of 1948. Women took active part in the democratic revolution of 1951 which overthrew the 104 year autocracy of the genus genus Rana family. Its goal was to overthrow the 104 years of Rana autocracy from Nepal. The first women organization the Nepal Women Association was established in 1948, it worked to inculcate political sentience among women.After the fall of the Rana regime and dawn of democracy in 1951, political parties became active. Womens organization began to be affiliated with various political parties. During the thirty year rule (1960-1990) of the party-less Panchayat clay, all political parties and independent women 5 organizations were banned. However, the left democratic vehemences continued their struggle against the suppressive political system. The communist organized peasants and workers to fight against the exploitative regime. Women came out in large number during the struggle for democracy.The All Nepal Women Assoc iation (ANWA) functioning under the party, was very active in organizing revolutionary women. It is during this period of struggle that ANWA established itself as a revolutionary wing of the party. many another(prenominal) another(prenominal) members of ANWA were tortured by the rulers. The persistence in the struggle attracted women to join the movement. The movement was successfully expanded throughout the country. to a fault there were some sectoral women movements in existence against the feudal exploitation of landlord and Rana regime. But they were limited in coverage and could not take larger fabricate to include women from all over the nation.In order to understand the shaping of the movement, it is necessary to mention how the womens political and organized form of movement was connected with the political parties. The first under principle mass meeting of All Nepal Women Association was held in 1980. The gathering discussed and analyzed situation of the country, set goa ls and strategies of women struggle to achieve the womens rights and liberation. It formulated the eagle-eyed term and short term national policy and programme for the women struggle. The period of eighties is the most active and important period for Nepalese women movement.The oppression from the then rulers was intolerable. Many women activists were jailed and tortured, more than 70 women activists were full-time underground and semi-underground activists. They developed thousands of activists who were over-ground, and they continued their underground activities. It played a crucial role in creating political awareness and played significant role in organizing women of different class, profession and strata. During its underground political training, the All Nepal Women Association equipped its cadre with true ideals in the struggles for political rights, social justice and economic equality.It also made best use of the 8th March International Womens Day (started since 1972, 8th march), and national festival such(prenominal) as Tij (exclusive women festival) and Tihar (festival of light) celebrated each year for five days culminating the worshipping of brothers by sisters on the last day. On this day women folk gather at their parental houses, hence an opportunity to make best use of gathering. ANWA organized its first National con category in 1989 in underground way, stand by National Conference in 1992 and the third National Conference in 1995 with the theme Social Security and Employment, Equal Rights in all Sectors.All members of ANWA and other women organizations cultivated a day-dream-a dream of new fall outive and democratic Nepal where women participation in all walks of national life is ensured. In spite of all these struggles, sacrifices and enthusiasm, women have been marginalized in politics as in any other sectors. The paternalistic structures of the family, society and the male-dominated political organizations gave little space to wome n. There exist a big gap between saying and doing, preaching and practicing about womens participation and leadership in Nepal.Constitutionally, 5 percent cigarettes of the total candidacy in the parliamentary election are reserved for women, in each political party. Recently the government has decided to provide 15 percent reservation in each VDC and Municipality. Al unneurotic there are 4000 VDCs and 58 Municipalities and in each VDC there are 9 Wards (Unit). Each ward of the VDC will have 5 members including chairperson elected. Among four members one seat is reserved for women. There is a provision of Advisory Committee in VDC and municipality and participation of women is provisioned.Thus, at the local aim altogether more than 120,000 women will be mobilized representing all parties. It is a welcome step forward to include women in politics at the local levels. The position of women in civil service is also very bleak. While the 1990 High Level Administration Reform Commiss ion gave suggestions to improve the situation, only 5 percent of the civil servants at officeholder level were women in 1992. National and external efforts have been made to bring multilateral and bilateral agencies for aid and assistance for womens cause.In spite of all these efforts, gender gap is still very wide. Inequalities are rampant in all frontscultural, social, economic, political and in education. Women have no separate identity of herself. They are identified in relation to her father, husband, son and grandson. Women in the society The Patriarchal system is the root cause of social injustice in Nepal. Sons are preferred over daughters. Sons are considered economic insurance in old age. They carry the family name, perform death rituals and rites.Girls are considered as others property to be given away in marriage. They are unwanted, leave out ad overworked. They are seen as auxiliary contributors to the household. Thus, the women are caught in the corrupt circle of the family system of exploitation and deprivation. The socialization pattern of Nepalese society is very discriminative. From the childhood, boys are groomed towards productive work and decision making and girls are confined to an inside humanness conditioned to be home makers, dutiful wives, winsome mothers and service providers.A woman is subjected to the protection of man and has no mobility. Women are controlled by men and are considered as a property of men. Hence they do not have their own property. Even religion, education and rituals are denied to women. A womens life is not for her self. Health status of Nepalese women is deplorable. Nepal is one of the three countries in the world where the life expectancy of women is lower than that of men. In Nepal 20 percent of pregnancies are said to be in the high risk category. Violence on girl-child and child whoredom is alarmingly increasing.Trafficking of girls into India are increasing and of those trafficked 20 percent are minors under 16 years of age. The overall health condition is alarmingly poor in Nepal. The average life expectancy is 55. 9 for males and 53. 5 for females. Only 10 percent of the pregnant women get maternal service. The maternal death rate rate is 850 per 100,000 live birth. Average child bearing age among 40 percent of women is 15 to 19 years. The fertility rate is as high as 5. 7. Women have been the focus of population policies and the main target for family computer programning and fertility control.The girl malnutrition rate is double than that of boy under 5 years. 78 percent of rural women suffer by anaemia in the delivery period. 85 percent of women depend upon the traditional birth attendants instead of health post and hospital work. Even in the urban areas, the maternal mortality rate is 8. 5 per 1000 but in rural and geographically distanced rural area the MMR is 15. 4 per 1000. Economic Status of Nepalese Women Nepal is an underdeveloped agricultural country with a per c apita GDP of US $ 202 (1994). Almost half of its population is below the poverty line.It ranks second among the poorest countries of the world. Studies have shown that womens contribution in the economy is large and significant with 57 percent of agricultural activities being carried out by women. They contribute about half of household income and work 11 hours a day. Despite womens substantial contributions both as cultivators and managers in the production process, all their labour is unnoticed, undervalued and un scotched in the economy. Women as the workers Women bring into being a little over one-half of the Nepalese population. 5 percent of employed women are confined to agricultural work compared to 75 percent for men. anyway agriculture, women are again mostly confined to traditional jobs such as sewing and knitting. They are rarely engaged in professional and technical jobs. real few are in community services, commerce, manufacture etc. Jobs are low-paid, requiring rela tively simple skills. In the service sector, women are mostly engaged in teaching, health and financial institutions. Women lag far behind in the legal field and media service. Only 6 percent are found at officer level positions in the civil services.Women in Nepal generally work for longer hours compared to men, and rural women devote much longer hours than urban women. His Majestys Government of Nepal has fixed the tokenish wage and salaries in the industrial and organized sectors without any gender discrimination but in practice such discrimination are noticed. Discrimination in organized sectors are more prominent. Effective and in built participation of women in the development process, both as a producer and consumer of development output, has been authorized as a necessary condition for balanced, equitable and sustainable growth.But Nepalese women are yet to obtain such participation. In terms of labour cart participation, women are behind men, are predominantly confined t o agriculture, account for the majority of unpaid family workers, number predominantly among the unemployed and are heavily concentrated in low-paid jobs, The constraints against womens employment in industry can be summarized as follows, Women are poorly qualified or not suitably trained Protective rule has acted as a deterrent to womens employment Women are prepared to work for lower wage Both women and men learn upon womens income as supplementary There is no solidarity and no unions among women Women deficiency the collateral to become entrepreneurs, therefore have no access to They lack entrepreneurial knowledge They have dual responsibilities and lack societal support credit loans or Ninety percent of the employed women are confined to agricultural activities where as it is less than seventy five percent in the case of men. Less than 6 percent of them are engaged in personal and community services, 2 percent are found in commerce and 1 percent in manufacturing.The empl oyment of women in sectors like electricity, gas and water, construction, transport and communication finance and business services is extremely low or negligible (table No. 3). Economically Active nation (10 years and above) by Major effort and sex 1991 (in percent) Table 1 Occupational organize of Women and Men (1991) Occupation Male Female rack up Female as % of Total Professional technical Workers 2. 5 0. 7 1. 8 15. Administrative Workers 0. 4 0. 1 0. 3 9. 3 Clerical Workers 1. 6 0. 3 1. 1 10. 0 Sales Workers 3. 9 1. 7 3. 0 22. 6 Service Workers 7. 8 3. 8 6. 2 25. 1 Farm/Fish Workers 74. 90. 4 81. 0 45. 1 Production force Workers 5. 8 2. 0 4. 2 18. 8 Others 3. 0 0. 8 2. 1 15. 8 Not Stated 0. 3 0. 2 0. 3 35. 9 Total 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 40. Source Population Census 1991 Table 2 Women in the Labour force 1991 Describe Male Female Total I. Population(in 000) 9221 9270 18491 2. Labour force 6445 6554 12999 (Population aged 10 years and above in 000) 3.Labour forces% of total people 69. 9 70. 7 70. 3 4. Economically active population 4428 2982 7410 (Aged 10 years & above in 000) 5. Labour force participation rate 68. 7 45. 5 57. 0 (4 as% of2) 6.Economically inactive population 2017 3572 5589 (aged 10 years and above000) 7. 6as%of 2 31. 3 54. 5 43 Source Population Census 1991 Table 3Economically active population (10 years and above) by major industries and sex, 1991(in percent) Industry Male Female Total Female as % of Total Agriculture 74. 9 90. 5 81. 2 45. 0 Manufacturing 2. 6 1. 2 2. 0 11. 9 Construction 0. 7 0. 1 0. 5 10. 9 Commerce 4. 5 2. 0 3. 23. 7 Transport and communication 1. 1 0. 1 0. 7 3. 9 Finance and business services 0. 4 0. 1 0. 3 13. 4 Personal & community services 13. 6 5. 3 10. 2 21. 0 Others 0. 6 0. 1 0. 4. 6. 7 Industry not stated 1. 1. 6 1. 0 23. 2 Total 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 40. 4 Source Population Census 1991 Women are set about conundrums created by government new economic poli cy of privatization and liberalization. The policy of privatization and liberalization is yet to show its full impact in Nepalese economy. Even then we expect to encounter the following problems in the field of women workers and employment in the days to come. 1. The employer may prefer men to women or unmarried to married one 2.Difference in salary of men and women may persist 3. Government may not be responsible for capacity building program for women 4. The dignity of women workers might erode as they will be treated as commodity by their employers. 5. Prostitution, sex tourism and sexual harassment will grow together with success of privatization and liberalization 6. Women will have to be restricted to low skilled and low paid jobs. The new policy will reduce the opportunities for ceremonious education and vocational training for upgrading the skills, with a result that women do not qualify for promotions, job up gradation and higher wage.Education and Nepalese Women For a lon g time, education was a privilege for a few in Nepal. The first government school for girls opened in 1948 a year after the Civil Rights Movement. It was only in 1951 that education was gradually prompted throughout the country. The literacy rate in the country is 40 percent. Literacy rate among women is only 25 percent. In the schools the dropout and irregularity of girls are higher compared to that of boys. Progress in the promotion of girls education has been made as a result of international womens year and the international womens decade. Several measures have been taken to augment girls education.Female teachers were appointed in each school. Nevertheless, education is yet to be effective in empowering women in Nepal. Education in Nepal is not yet conjugate with the lives of the people. Equality and empowerment of women is simply a lip-service. Government Policy and Womens Advancement There has been some changes in the interests and attitudes of the policy planners after the change in the political system. However, the changes are not satisfactory and are still sectoral. A new ministry looking after women issues has been created. The ministry is to coordinate and further the policies and programs related to the women.Women constitute half of the population in Nepal. Unless they participate fully in the nation building task, economic development of the country will not be possible. Taking this reality into account sectoral strategy and working policy were outlined in the eighth plan (1992-97), the first plan of fully democratic. The strategies to be followed as outlined in the plan are Encouraging womens participation in traditional as well as non traditional sectors Extending access to be formal and non-formal education to women Adopting affirmative satisfy in training program Increasing womens access to health facilities especially FP/MCH facilities Increasing womens access to credit, technical knowledge, entrepreneurship development programs, mar keting facilities and employment opportunities Extending to rural areas those kinds of expert changes which reduce the time spend in gathering an fetching fuel fodder, water and household work Revising laws discriminatory to women Though the government of Nepal started a policy on Women In Development (WID) since sixth five year plan (1980-85). The policy aimed to promote the status of women by recognizing women as development agent.The plans hard-pressed on technical and non technical fields of training for women. The Women Training Centre was formed under the Ministry of Local Development (MOLD) for skill development of rural women. Of course there has been some changes in the interests and attitudes among politicians and policy makers. However the change is not overall satisfactory and still is sectoral. Women should be recognized as partner and not as subordinate to men. No dubiety, the newly formed Ministry of Women and Social Welfare should take up a leading role in assert ing this concept. Girls trafficking and prostitution as major Social Problems of Women in NepalIn Nepal girls trafficking and prostitution problem are becoming similar to that of problems in Thailand, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Taiwan. Over 200,000 Nepali girls/women are reported to be indulged into prostitution in India. It is said that between 5000 to 7000 young girls are trafficked to India annually of which one-third are trafficked forcefully. According to the Indian Health Organization (IHO) 100,000 Nepali girls/women are working as prostitutes in Calcutta, Mumbai and New Delhi alone. IHO estimates that of the 15,000 prostitutes working in the state of Utter Pradesh, 12,000 are Nepali girls and women.The Girls, sold against their will, are subjected to severe mental and physical torture. Most of the girls and women engaged in prostitution are usually from broken families while others come from poor families. Many innocent teenage girls are abducted or lured from their homes in the countryside and are forced into the job. They are either lured or deceived on fake promises and sold to the brothel houses in Indian cities by the middlemen. As such the Nepali girls/women are found serving as prostitutes in almost every city and towns of India and the practice is, unfortunately increasing.Intra-regional and Inter-regional trafficking has also increased rapidly as more and more people migrate to the cities. There are more than 5000 girls/women from surrounding countryside working as prostitutes in Kathmandu and it is said that there are more than 200 brothels in Kathmandu city alone. Similarly, major market centres work as transit centres for ultimate trafficking into India. The East-west Highway is a fertile ground for prostitution which is being called commonly as highway prostitution.Some reports and investigations have revealed that large number of girls/women have been trafficked via carpet and garment factories. Many who fall victim are those destitute and helpless women who are neglected, abused and abandoned by their husbands and relatives. Many women belonging to lower castes are also made to be the victims. No doubt the trafficking of girls/women to the urban areas of Nepal and to the brothels of foreign countries tell us a story of fraud exploitation, domination as well as despair frustration and poverty.We need to look beyond the facade of economic problems and try to come with the possible reasons within a larger cultural, historical and socio-political framework. While the subjects of sex remains taboo in Nepalese society, prostitution has gained a big momentum. It is no longer limited to the traditional red light areas of Salyan, Pyuthan and Dang zones where the women of the Badi community adopt prostitution as profession. They adopt prostitution as a social practice. Under the Deuki system the girls are surrendered to temples by people by the way of spiritual gift or Bhakal.The Deukies are not expected to marry and th us, they adopt prostitution as a means of livelihood when they grow up. The Deuki system has been operating under the guise of religious and cultural beliefs. The cultural practice of Deuki system and Badi community have given way to socially recognized prostitution in Nepal. In Nepal as criminalise of prostitution remains a matter of dispute, there can be no question on the urgent need to address the issue that force girls and women into the flesh trade.The immediate risk groups like the poor and ignorant girls in the countryside, girls children working in the carpet and garment factories and the children on the streets should be made the immediate target for protection activities. All the government and non government organizations and the conscious citizens need to act actively to abolish the practice of flesh trade. Every tree trunk should realize the gravity of the problem which is posing a big threat to a very fabric of Nepalese society. Everyone should work to contribute for he prevention and control of prostitution and girls trafficking.Well coordinated efforts need to be made in creating the congenial environment to discourage the sexual exploitation of women. There should be an effective implementation of laws relating to trafficking of girls. Income and employment generating programs such as knitting, sewing, weaving, bamboo work, sericulture etc. are necessary so that economic status of women in the countryside, the fertile ground for the traffickers is bettered. The profession of flesh trade can not be checked with the legal measures alone.Alternative means for survival are necessary. Both income generating activities as well as programs generating awareness are equally important in this respect. Despite all the existing laws, the enforcement and the threat of AIDS, girls/women trafficking and prostitution still remain a growing problem in Nepal. Nevertheless, it is a matter of great gaiety that since the last few years some of the NGO and INGO s have started taking keen interests on the issue of women trafficking and practice of forced prostitution in Nepal.Similarly, the international and United Nations agencies have also started creating an awareness against girls trafficking and immoral prostitution practices. In the western and far western part of Nepal there is residue of slavery system called Karnaiya. The bonded labourers do not receive their full labour cost. They have to work free of charge for 15-18 hours/day The system is spread in 5 district of Kailali, Kanchanpur, Banke, Dang and Bardiya. In all these districts there is approximately 50 thousands Kamaiya. Generally women from Kamaiya family are required to work free for the landlord.Women under Kamaiya system are more victimized even than the Kamaiyas themselves. Physical and sexual abuse are common among Kamaiya women. Global context of and its effect to Nepali Women In the present context sphericalization has inflicted its worsened effect all over the wor ld. Globalization is generally used t0 designate an aggregate of policy measures which seek to expand market relations on world level and to enlarge the scope for the free movement of capital internationally. Some of the key components of globalizations are trade liberalization i. e. reakdown of tariff barriers, privatization of formerly common sector companies and the reduction of state intervention and the promotion of export oriented production for instance pf cash crops agriculture. In the countries of the south , such policies are generally enforce by WB. IMF , in the name of structural enrollment. while the ideology of globalization states that such polities serve to promote human welfare an increasingly large body of literature migration from rural areas and to a shift from secure to insecure forms of employment and production.Under structural adjustment programmes, government world wide have been compelled to sell of public sector companies to the private sector, and such transfers to the private sector have frequently been accompanied but massive dismissals and the flexibilization of labour relations under structural adjustment and liberalization, workers loose various forms of minimal security previously provided by the state or state owned companies. The declarations and programs of action adopted at the four global womens conferences held since 1975 have added important dimensions on the empowerment of women.The second global conference in Copenhagen in 1980 and the third one in Nairobi in 1985 contributed to the credence of the advancement of women by the year 2000. Now the UN is working on the fourth phase of progress of women. All the four conferences have the message that no progress is possible without a full and equal participation of men and women. Although in many countries women remain most deprived, discriminated and powerless in most societies.With this global context we should raise some pertinent points regarding Nepalese womens mov ement which will give the picture of Nepalese women, their social, cultural, economic and political status who are the threshold for the twenty-first century. Conclusion From the mid 1980s womens movement in Nepal can be characterized in three distinct features. Firstly, womens movement was all activism. The role of academia was insignificant. But now there has been forging links between these two in a variety of ways in different fora, conferences, conventions, and demonstrations.A strong belief among many groups has emerged that the struggle against gender inequalities can not be waged in isolation from struggle in many other fronts. Thirdly, the womens movement is not secluded within the country and is increasingly interconnected with the international womens movement. The four international conferences on women have been successful in bringing womens all over the world in common platform of action (Country Report on International Womens Conference, 1-5 August 1997, Malmo, Sweden prepared by Sujita Shakya & Umesh Upadhyaya)
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Executive summaryCadbury Report (1992) stated that corporal authorities is the execute by which companies and directed and controlled (cited in Tricker, 2009). In early(a) words, it helps the corporate entities increase the value provided to the organisations various s inquireholders. Therefore, bewitch corporate constitution plays a very important role in development of organisations. This followup will define corporate governance and slightly of its concepts (through the paper). Following, the review will give a Memorandum or a cosmopolitan introduction ab extinct Nufarm, which is a publicly listed company and then consider the building, operation and effectiveness of its governance.Besides, the paper will mention well-nigh areas such as the composition and responsibilities of the Nufarm carte du jour of Directors, and disclose policies, codes of conduct doned by the company, which are relevant to the companys governance scopes. Finally, from information and analyses, t here are more or less recommendations for the Nufarm to achieve appropriate improvements. For example, the companys governance should recognise and adhere to all relevant laws and regulations and meets senior high standards with respect to h onenesssty and integrity. In addition, the company should suck open and effective communications with its shareholders and the general investment community. Furthermore, the company should have effective methods to review drivers of governance, etc.Table of contentsContentsI.Introduction3II.What is corporate governance?3III.General introduction about Nufarm, information of the company (Memorandum)3IV.The Structure, dish out and effectiveness of the Nufarms governance4The Scope of the companys Corporate arrangement influences the companys codes7V.Recommendations8VI.References10I. IntroductionRecently, the appearance of high-profile corporate failures, scandals and executive corruption arises the requirement for organisations to follow approp riate corporate governance structures, processes standards and practices.The aim of this paper is to investigate the structure, process andeffectiveness of the governance of Nufarm, a publicly listed company and give recommendations for it to achieve appropriate improvements.II. What is corporate governance?Cadbury report (1992) and OECD (1999) defined that corporate governance is the process by which company are directed and controlled.Monks & Minow (2001) suggested that corporate governance is the kind among various participants in determining the direction and feat of corporations. The primary participants are the shareholders, the heed and the board of directors.OECD (2001) supposed that corporate governance refers to the private and public institutions, including laws, regulations and accepted subscriber line practices, which together govern the relationship, in a market economy, amidst corporate managers and entrepreneurs, on the one hand, and those who invest resources i n corporations, on the otherIII. General introduction about Nufarm, information of the company (Memorandum)Nufarm restrain is a publicly listed company, one of the worlds leading crop protection companies (Nufarms website, 2012). The company manufactures products to help farmers protect their crops against damage caused by weeds, pests and disease. Its manufacturing and marketing spread throughout Australia, youthful Zealand, Asia, The Americas and Europe and sells products in more than 100 countries around the world.According to the Nufarms website (2012), the company employs more than 2,600 people around the places having its manufacturing and marketing operations, all of whom make a vital contribution to the companys reputation for quality products, innovation and first class marketing and technical support. Proudly based in Australia, Nufarm is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (with symbol NUF). Its head office is located at Laverton in Melbourne, Australia.Table1 the i nformation contained in the company details table (ASX website, 2012)IV. The Structure, process and effectiveness of the Nufarms governanceThe companys board structure contains Chairman (Donald Gordon McGauchie), Managing Director/CEO (Doug Rathbone), and five Non Executive Directors who are Anne Bernadette Brennan, Gordon Richard Davis, Bruce Goodfellow, Gary Hounsell, Peter allowance account (Nufarms website, 2012).According to the companys website (2012), the room is the governing body of the family. The Board is responsible for the oversight of the high society. It is responsible to ensure that the business of the Company is carried out in the best interests of all shareholders and with proper ascertain to the interests of all other stakeholders. Specifically, the Board has responsibility to protect and enhance the value of the assets of the Company, set strategies and directions and monitor and review those strategic objectives, review and ratify internal controls, codes o f conduct and legal compliance, review the Companys accounts, O.K. and review the one course of study operating calculate and five year strategic plan for the Company, appoint the Managing Director, evaluate performance and determine the remuneration of the Managing Director and major(postnominal) executives, ensure the significant risks facing the Company have been identified and adequate control monitoring and reporting mechanisms are in place, approve transactions relating to acquisitions, divestments and capital expenditure above authority limits delegated to direction, approve financial and dividend policy, appoint the Company Secretary, ratify the appointment of the Chief Financial Officer (Nufarms website, 2012).The managing Director is delegated to be responsible for the day-to-day leadership and management of the Company. To assist the Board to discharge its responsibilities and duties, the Board has delegated to the Managing Director specific authorities which are sub ject to appropriate reporting and monitoring procedures. For example * Shareholder set / corporate strategy the Managing Director formulates and brings to the Board for review and approval, an appropriate long term strategy for the Nufarm Groupand appropriate financial standards and policies. The strategy is reviewed by the Board at its annual strategic planning review and any changes in financial standards are reviewed by the Audit military commission.* Organisation Planning the Managing Director formulates an appropriate human resources policy which is reviewed by the Board annually. * Capital Allocation The Managing Director approves capital expenditure within limits set by the Board. All approvals made by the Managing Director are reported and reviewed at every Board face-off. * Company Financial Performance the Managing Director reports to the Board at each Board Meeting on the financial results of the Company. * Compliance The Managing Director is responsible for ensuring c ompliance with all relevant legislation.In brief, the Board has delegated to the Managing Director all powers required to manage the business of the Company and the Managing Director reports on a monthly basis on all actual matters affecting the Nufarm Group to the Board.Besides, The Board has leash committees the Audit Committee, the nominating address Committee and the Remuneration Committee. These Board Committees review and analyse policies and strategies within their specific terms of reference. The Board Committees examine proposals and, where appropriate, make recommendations to the Board. The Board Committees do not take direct action or make decisions on behalf of the Board unless specifically mandated by prior Board authority (Nufarms website).The nominating speech Committee consists of three non-executive Directors and is comprised of a majority of independent Directors. The Committees purpose is to develop criteria for Board membership and identify specific individual s for nominating speech and establish processes for the review of the performance of individual Directors and the Board as a whole. The duties of this committee is facilitating a Board performance assessment, develop criteria for Board membership, identify suitably skilled, qualified and experienced individuals for nomination and to establish processes for the review of the performance of Directors.According to Tricker (2012, p.283), the essential and original role of the audit committee is to act as a bridge between the independent external auditors and the board, avoiding the possibility of powerful executive directors and over the years the role and responsibilities of the committee have expanded. Nufarm companys Audit Committees primary function is to assist the Board in fulfilling its corporate governance responsibilities in regard to financial reporting, audit and risk management, including oversight of the preparation of Nufarm Limiteds (the Group) financial reporting compli ance with legal and regulatory obligations oversight of the effectiveness of the Groups enterprise-wide risk management and internal control fashion model and oversight of the relationship with the external and internal auditors.The specific duties and responsibilities of the companys audit committee in meeting will be report Committee actions to the Board with such recommendations as the Committee may deem appropriate (e.g. The Committee will report to the Board immediately if it becomes aware of any material misstatement in financial information provided by management to the Board or of any materialbreakdown in internal controls), perpetually monitor a framework and processes for compliance with laws, regulations, standards, best practice guidelines and the Groups code of conduct, maintain suitable interaction with the Health Safety & Environment Committee and the Nomination & Governance Committee, perform such other functions assigned by law, the Companys Constitution, or the B oard.The Remuneration Committees purpose is to recommend to the Board policies and practices which enable Nufarm to attract, develop, retain and motivate high caliber Directors and executives. The Committee will review and make recommendations on policies for remuneration, development, retention and termination of Directors and Key Management staff office (KMP). The Committees duties are to review and make recommendations to the Board in relation to Nufarms Board and executive remuneration strategy, structure and practice with regard to Nufarm strategic objectives corporate governance principles and competitive practice.The specific matters the Committee may consider include the review of executive management and Directorsremuneration, including the link between Company and individual performance current industry best practice the outcome of the annual vote on the adoption of the Remuneration Report different methods for remunerating senior management and Directors including supera nnuation arrangements 2/4 existing or proposed incentive schemes retirement and termination benefits and payments for senior management professional indemnity and liability damages policies.The Committee is responsible for seeking and approving remuneration advisers that will provide independent remuneration advice, as appropriate, on Board, CEO and other KMP remuneration strategy, structure practice and disclosure. However, according to the company website (2012), the Committee does not have executive powers to commit the Board or management to its recommendations except where authorised by a resolution of the Board nor become involved in day to day management activities or decision making. The Scope of the companys Corporate Governance influences the companys codesAccording to Tricker (2012), the structure, the membership and the process of the governing body are central to corporate governance. However, the relations with shareholders, contractual stakeholders, legal institution s, etc also influence the structure and operation of Nufarms corporate governance. Therefore, the companys corporate governance refers to the private and public institutions, including laws, regulations and public institutions, which together govern the relationship between corporate managers and entrepreneurs, on the one hand, and those who invest resources in corporations on the other (Tricker, 2012).For example, the companys code of conduct is governed by and contrasted in conformity with the laws in the State of Victoria, Australia. Besides, Nufarm has ensured to be compliance with the ASX Listing Rules, and ensured that Key Management Personnel and their associates are aware of the legal restrictions in dealing in Nufarms shares, options or other securities while such a person is in possession of unpublished price sensitive information concerning Nufarm.V. RecommendationsThere are some recommendations in order for Nufarm to make appropriateimprovements for its corporate gover nance areFirstly, Nufarm should conduct its business in a manner which recognises and adheres to all relevant laws and regulations and meets high standards with respect to honesty and integrity. In order to meet this commitment, we require all Nufarm directors, employees, contractors and consultants to be familiar with and uphold the companys code of conduct in all business dealings.Besides, according to Tricker (2012), the Board, which determines whether the companys governance is good, is the major driving force in a company. However, there are other drivers of good governance in the company such as shareholders. Therefore, the company should have open and effective communications with its shareholders and the general investment community. For example, with shareholders, the company should adopt a shareholder communications policy in order to* Ensure that shareholders and the financial markets are provided with full and timely information about its activities * Comply with continu ous disclosure obligations contained in applicable Listing Rules and the Corporations Act in Australia as well as industry guidelines such as the Australasian Investor Relations Associations, opera hat Practice Guidelines for Communication between Listed Entities and the Investment Community and Ensure equality of access to briefings, presentations and meetings for shareholders, analysts and media. * Encourage attendance and voting at shareholder meetingsThe companys Remuneration Committee should review induction and development arrangements for the Board to ensure Board members gain and maintain a suitable level of knowledge about Nufarm.Audit Committee should usually review and make recommendations to the Board on the Nufarm Diversity Policy ensuring the Policy is in line with applicable legislation and governance principles.Self-assess whether the Committees comply with its membership requirements at least once every year.Critically review the Remuneration Committee Charter at l east once per year to ensure its relevance and compliance with overall governance legislative requirements and best practice.VI. ReferencesMonks, B., Nell, M. 2007, Corporate Governance, 4th edn, Chichester, UKWiley.Tricker, B. 2009, Corporate Governance Principles, Policies, and Practices, Oxford University Press.Nufarm website 2012, , viewed 15 July, 2012.ASX website 2012, Nufarm Limited (NUF), , viewed 15 July, 2012.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
To our surprise, when Eddie talks to Louis and Mike, they mention Rodolfo and ab egress how funny they think he is. They arent re ally talking about it as a compliment, in fact, it is an confirming insult. We think this because the stage directions tell us how hysterical Louis and Mike find the conversation. Hes al personal manners making little remarks, like y spot? This may surprise the auditory sense because we automatically think that Eddie is just jealous and making excuses for his jealousy. But when we hear it from some one else, as indirect as it may be, our touch sensations may altar slightly as there may be slight truth behind what he is saying.When Catherine returns from her date with Rodolfo, Eddie talks to her. He indicates that she will have to withdraw, and catchs her feel guilty-dont break my heart Katie. Eddie accordingly tells Catherine how he thinks Rodolfo is using her just for citizenship-He marries you, he has the right to be an American citizen. Catheri ne is obviously actually hurt by this, I dont believe it and I wish to hell youd stop it Our expectations as the audience have grown, there is conflict amongst Catherine and Eddie now, the two that were so close. Disaster turns a lapse idea.Eddie has lost the control he once had over Catherine, she doesnt listen to him any much(prenominal) and has her own opinions. After Catherine and Eddies fight, Beatrice talks to Catherine. She tells her that Eddie is not her father and that he shouldnt tell her what to do. Hes not your father, Catherine. I dont understand whats going on here. Beatrice brings up Catherines immaturity towards Eddie. Catherine-He thinks Im a baby. Beatrice-Because you think youre a baby. She discreetly tells Catherine she is jealous of her-You think Im jealous of you honey? Well you should have thought of it before but Im not. Expectations in the audience are created because Beatrice is suffering in her relationship with Eddie, supposeing at Catherine a nd Rodolfo make her happy and Beatrice will favour Catherine in disputes between Eddie and Catherine. Eddie goes to come upon Alfieri. After he has explained the problem, he asks about law advice-he is taking this situation very seriously. Eddie tells Alfieri that he thinks Rodolfo is gay-The guy aint right. he makes a new dress. I rigorous he looked so sweet there-like an angel-you could kiss him he was so sweet. Alfieri bluntly tells Eddie that the only illegal thing progressing here is, the way in which they entered the country. Eddie refuses to spectre upon that boundary, Oh, Jesus, no, I wouldnt do nothin about that. Alfieri then says She wants to get married, Eddie. She cant marry you can she? Stage directions describe Eddie as furious at this remark. Alfieri concludes this expectation by telling the audience he can see the outcome unfolding-I knew where he was heading for, I knew he was going to end. - a very accurate prediction. By this betoken expectations of tr agedy and tragedy in the audience are high.Alfieri has just told the audience he knew Eddie was going to end. That is a vital point in his speech, it tells us he is going to literally end. So far, in the play we have seen how important Catherine and Eddies relationship is. We have realised that Eddie has feelings for Catherine, more than what he likes to believe himself. We have established that Eddie is very against the idea of Catherine and Rodolfo, because of his jealousy and fear of loosing Catherine. All the characters are at the house for a family meal. After they all discuss some of the places Rodolfo and Marco have been.In conversation Eddie gently warns Rodolfo about Catherine-It aint so free here either Rodolfo. But in your town you wouldnt just drag off some girl without permission, I mean. You experience what I mean Marco, it aint that much different here. They have a small argument. Catherine then asks Rodolfo to dance, in glossae of Eddie. Rodolfo says no at first, in deference to Eddie. Eddie mentions Rodolfos many talents, hinting he thinks he is gay-But if I could cook, if I could sing, if I could make dresses, I wouldnt be on the waterfront. (He has been unconsciously been twisting the newspaper into a tight roll.They are all regarding him now he senses he is exposing an introduce and is driven on. ) I would be someplace else. I would be like in a dress store. (He has bent the piece of paper and it suddenly bust in two). This long piece of text has significant stage directions. They show how Eddies anger doesnt shine through verbally, but physically. He is sometimes unable to express his feelings. Eddie then offers to teach Rodolfo boxing, possibly putting on a brave act for Catherine, trying to bond with Rodolfo. His real motive is clear to us, the audiencehe wants to take out his anger, he wants to hit Rodolfo. He also wants to show he is much stronger than Rodolfo, he wants to prove something to himself and to almost scoot Rodolfo. Rodolfo shows how he does have respect for Eddie-I dont want to hit you Eddie. Eddies ends up hitting Rodolfo-what he wanted. Marco has become aware of what is happening between Rodolfo and Eddie now and is not too pleased. He steps in to show Eddie who is really the strongest. Marco challenges Eddie to a chair-lifting contest. Marco wins and conflict between Marco and Eddie has now begun.Stage directions tell us, Marco is facial gesture to face with Eddie, a strained tension gripping his eyes and jaw, his neck stiff, the chair raised like a weapon above Eddies head-and he transforms what faculty appear like a flare of warning into a smile of triumph, and Eddies grin vanishes a he absorbs his look. To the audience Marcos look is warning Eddie. Marco is leery of Eddie now and will protect Rodolfo as best he can. This last scene has added to the expectations of this audience because Eddie has had conflict with every main character, tragedy is even more inevitable. Act two begins now, opening with Catherine and Rodolfo.Catherine discreetly asks Rodolfo if he is just marrying her for citizenship. She asks him if they could live in Italy to see how he reacts. He reacts badly, he doesnt want to know and thinks Catherine is mad. She then tells Rodolfo how she is scared of Eddie, then asks him straight. Would you still want do it if it turned out we had to live in Italy? Rodolfo is absolutely furious by this thought-My heart dies to look at you, why are you so afraid of him? Rodolfo tells Catherine that Eddie is in the wrong and that she needs to let go of him as well-If I take in my custody a little bird. And she grows and wishes to fly.But I will not let her out of my hands because I love her so much, is that right for me to do? Rodolfo and Catherine stop together. This is not openly shown but the audience can predict that it happens further tragedy for Eddie. Eddie returns home shortly after, he is drunk-stage directions state he is unsteady-drunk. As he enters he soon realises what has happened and orders Rodolfo to, Pack it up. Go ahead. Get your stuff out of here. But Catherine then says she is going as well. Eddie, losing all meaning finds the one way he feel she can express his feelings for Catherine, he kisses her.But in a pathetic attempt to show Rodolfo as gay, Eddie kisses him. Stage directions- she strives to free herself, he kisses her on the mouth. Eddie pins his arms laughing and suddenly kisses him. Again Eddie warns Rodolfo to leave and refuses to let Catherine go. By this point in the play the audience will have plausibly realised tragedy is not far off. Eddie did the most surprising and astonishing thing he could have done, he kisses Catherine because it is the only way he feels he can express his feelings. But instead it destroys Eddie and Catherines relationship completely.Eddie pays Alfieri a final visit. Again Alfieri tells him that he has no rights and there is no law. He tells Eddie he has to let go-Le t her go and bless her (A phone booth begins to glow on the opposite side of the stage a faint, lonely blue. ) This in my opinion is the most important piece of stage direction. It creates an expectation in the audience unlike any other quote. It tells the audience immediately this telephone plays a role. Eddie has become desperate. The expectations are obvious, he is going to report Rodolfo and Marco to immigration.The audience think back to the story of Vinny and hoe tragic his story was, he was rejected by his family. The audience predict this is what will happen to Eddie. As the audience could predict Eddie reports Marco and Rodolfo to immigration. From that point onwards we know it really is the end for Eddie. There is no chance that he can rectify and of the damage he has done. Eddie returns home, trying to act casual. Catherine, Rodolfo and Marco have moved upstairs. Beatrice has an argument with Eddie about his previous actions and the issues of their physical relationship c ome into context of use briefly.Beatrice tells Eddie that it is his fault, what you did to her, in front of him Amazingly Catherine in conclusion stands up for her self in front of Eddie-Im gonna get married Eddie. Which adds to the expectations off disaster because Catherine has finally learnt to stand up to Eddie, she isnt trying to please him, she is her own mind which is something Eddie wont have experienced before. At a last grasp at hope, Eddie says to Catherine, If you wanna go out, like I mean I realize maybe I kept you home to much. And still continues to push with another excuse that Rodolfo isnt right for her. The audience see this as a desperate last attempt from Eddie to keep Catherine. Immigration arrive for Marco and Rodolfo. Eddie pretends he knows nothing about the immigrants-who? We got nonentity here. It doesnt take long for Beatrice to realise that Eddie is behind it-My God, what did you do? As immigration take away Marco and Rodolfo Marco spits in Eddies face. This is the biggest insult for Eddie, he is very hurt-Thats the thanks I get? I take the blankets off my bed for yiz. You gonna apologize. Now this has happened the expectations in the audience are fairly certain-Marco is the stronger man, he is furious with Eddie, understandably-That one, he killed my children That one stole food from my children. What is Marco going to do? The question that plays the mind until the very end. That is a venerateful way to create expectation. Not only did Marco spit in his face, but he humiliated him in front of the entire neighbourhood, and the entire neighbourhood turned their back on Eddie. Eddie feels as low as possible he has lost everything that meant any value to him.Alfieri now has to make Marco promise not to hurt Eddie until the hearing, this takes a lot of persuading, creating more expectations because it makes us wonder what Marco is feeling and about how hard it is for him to promise. Catherine makes a point about Eddie, how she feels about him-Nobody is going to talk to him again. When Marco does make the promise, he is expecting Eddie to apologize to him. It is Catherine and Rodolfos unify day. Eddie is on his last straw. He tells B that if she goes to the wedding he will leave her-You walk out that door, you aint comin back. This leaves the audience wondering, what could happen to their marriage who is she going to choose? Whoever she does choose will be the others disaster. Catherine finally does stands up to Eddie, harshly, like a woman. She calls him a rat and says He bites people in their sleep He comes when no bodys lookin and poisons decent people. In the garbage he belongs. A surprise in the audience and some tension because we wonder what will happen to Eddie now? Rodolfo comes and warns Eddie, he warns him that Marco is coming and suggests ways of solving the argument-Eddie ignores him bluntly.Marco calls Eddie out. At this point expectations peak, the audience are on the edge of their seats , desperate to know what will Marco do? Well after a few insults, their question is answered. As Eddie takes out a knife, our predictions are confirmed. Marco turns the knife. In the street in front of the neighbourhood, He dies in her arms Neither Eddie nor Marco could give into their beliefs and priorities. But Marco, the stronger man, won the battle. At the end of A view from the bridge Alfieri concludes, a very well though out ending, as he is the chorus in the play.This play is a classic tragedy, and in this essay I have written an account of the main events, and the expectations of disaster and tragedy the audience receive. In this play I think the best indication of disaster is when the telephone booth lights up. It answers most of the plays out standing questions up to that point. For example, How will Eddie cope? What will Eddie do? And so on. Overall I think this is a good play, it has been written with excellent use of brooklynese language and Arthur moth miller has used stage directions very well. It is a good storyline and gives the mind a lot to think about. A very thought provoking play.
Friday, May 24, 2019
1. What development in motor cars led to the need to replace the block brake? What was the replacement? With the adoption of pneumatic rubber tyres for cars in 1895, the block brake became impractical and was replaced as an automobile brake, and was replaced by the contracting band brake. 2. Who invented the drum brake? In what year did this occur? In 1902 Louis Renault invented the indwelling expanding drum brake. 3. wherefore was the drum brake superior to its predecessors?First, the shoes ar enclosed on the drum so the friction lining is away from wet or dirt, so they last longer. The drum brake also exhibits servo-assistance, in both forward and reverse the leading shoe exhibits servo assistance in forward travel, the trailing shoe in reverse travel. 4. Why are the disc brakes used extensively now? The disc brake offers fail heat dissipation than the drum brake and also offers better weather performance as water is thrown off the disc by motor(a) force. 5. Why is asbestos st ill allowed in brake linings in Australia?Asbestos gave the break lining greater stability at higher temperatures, thus the linings are more repellent to break failure form the heat. 6. The coefficient of friction () is ratio between what two values? The coefficient of friction is the ratio of the frictional force present and the normal chemical reaction to the matting surfaces. =FFRN 7. What is the tensile stress in a brake cable of diameter 2 mm if the tensile force in the cable is 200N? 8. regorge a stress strain curve for mild steel label the proportional limit, the upper and lower yield points and the UTS. . What is the difference between elastic and elastic deformation? 10. State Pascals principle. Why is it important to hydraulics? 11. What is steel? 12. What is the difference between austenite and ferrite? 13. What is pearlite? 14. What happens to the hardness of steel as the amount of cementite increases? 15. Describe what martensite is. 16. Why is manganese added to ste els? 17. What effect will nickel have if added to a low alloy steel? 18. Why is molybdenum added to the nickel-chromium steels? 19. Why is Hadfield steel used for?What is variant about its structure at room temperature as opposed to plain carbon steels? 20. There are three types of stainless steels available. List three and run along the uses of each? 21. Which stainless steel is non-magnetic? 22. What is the difference cast cast-iron and steel? 23. Carbon appears in different forms in cast irons, how does it appear in lily-white cast iron and grey cast iron? 24. Which type of grey cast iron is stronger, fine or course? 25. How do SG cast iron and CG cast iron differ?26. Blackheart malleable cast iron has shrive carbon present in Whiteheart malleable cast iron? 27. Is free carbon present in Whiteheart malleable cast iron? 28. Why is copper added to break launching pads? 29. What type of resin is used to bind the break pad together? 30. Draw two stress strain diagrams, one show ing high toughness, and one displaying high strength but a brittle failure. 31. What are the four hardness tests available? 32. Find the tension in the vertical and horizontal cables for the brake system shown. Slove this problem graphically then analytically.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Grievance in constancy There argon many a nonher(prenominal) f procedureors in industry, which make a worker unhappy and dejected. May be his fellow workers ar non-co-operative or his foremans sarcastic or caustic remarks on his own personal problems outside the factory or domestic matters. Poverty, undernourishment, debts, unemployed dependent, and so forth may be working adversely in his mind. He look around and finds ein truthbody being unkind to him. He is aggrieved and wants to ventilate his feelings and re bodily functions. A fountainhead-de first-rated injustice office is an central element of a sound industrial dealing machinery.Prompt and effective disposal of workers grievance is the rudimentary to industrial peace. The grievance procedures set up by agreement with a union appends a strong point for the workers to transmit his grievance to heed in an bully room and get the answer in writing Meaning and Nature of Employee Grievance According to Michael J. Juci us, the verge grievance sum any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether expressed or non and whether valid or non arising out of anything machine-accessible with the company that an employee thinks, believes or even feels, is unfair, unjust, or inequitable. The definition is very broad and cut acrosss wholly kinds of dissatisfaction, which an employee has while doing his job. A grievance means any discontentment or dissatisfaction arising out of anything tie in to to the enterprise where he is working. It may non be expressed and even may not be valid. It arises when an employee feels that something has happened or is going to happen which is unfair, unjust or inequitable. Keith Davis has defined grievance as any touchable or imagined feeling of personal injustice which an employee has concerning his employment traffichip. A grievance represents a situation in which an employee feels that something unfavorable to him has happened or is going to happen. In an industrial enterprise, grievance may arise because of several factors much(prenominal) as a. Violation of counsellings tariff such as poo working antecedents, b. Violation of companys rules and practices. c. Violation of bodied bargaining agreement, d. Violation of force laws, e. Violation of natural rules of justice such as unfair treatment in promotion. The essential of a grievance in an organization ar as under i.The discontentment arises out of something connected with the organization The sources of grievance lie within the company such as unfair treatment by the supervisor, violation of company rules, etc. do not constitute a grievance. Such outside sources are beyond the control of the employer. ii. A grievance may be expressed or implied It is comparatively easier to point express grievances. They are manifested in several ways, e. g. gossiping, active criticism, argumentation, increased labour turnover, carelessness in the use of tools, materials and poor workmanship, etc.Gr ievance are also implied by unemotionality to work, day dreaming, absenteeism, tardiness, etc. it is not wise to recognize only expressed grievances and overlook the unexpressed ones. In fact, unexpressed or implied grievances are to a greater extent suicidal than the grievances which are started because it is not k right awayn when the implied grievance may explode. It requires a lofty order of skill for an executive to identify such grievances. iii. The discontent may be rational or irrational rational grievance is a genuine one, which must be removed by the management.On the other hand, thither are grievances which are emotional in nature and are based on sentiments, distorted perception, lack of proper thinking, etc. these are totally irrational or psychological. It is rugged to handle such grievances. Sources of Grievance The causes of grievances may be grouped under three heads, viz. , i. Grievances resulting from Management Policies a. Wage rates or scale of pay. b. over time c. Leave d. Transfer- improper matching of the worker with the job e. Seniority, promotion, and discharges f. Lack of career planning and employee development plan g. Lack of role clarity. . Lack of bear upon for collective agreement. i. Hostility towards a labour union j. Autocratic leadership style of supervisors. ii. Grievances resulting from working conditions a. Unrealistic b. Non-availability of proper tools, machines and equipment for doing he job. c. Tight production standards. d. Bad sensual conditions of workplace. e. Poor dealinghip with the supervisor. f. Negative approach to jibe. iii. Grievances resulting from Personal Factors a. Narrow attitude b. Over- ambition c. Egoistic personality. Handling of Grievance Grievances are symptoms of conflicts in enterprise.So they should be handled very promptly and efficiently. Copying with grievances forms an important part of managers job. The manner in which he deals with grievances determines his efficiency in dealing with the subordinates. A manager is triple-crown if he is able to build a team of satisfied workers by removing their grievances. While dealing with grievances of subordinates, it is necessary to keep in mind the following points i. A grievance may or may not e real. ii. Grievances may arise out of not one cause, but multifarious causes. iii. Every individualist does not gives expression to his grievances.For the purpose of handling grievances efficiently, it is necessary to find and analyses the grievance of the subordinates. If a grievance is found to be genuine or real, the restorative action should be teachn immediately. But if the grievance arises due to imagination or disturbed frame of mind of the worker, then it is necessary to explain and clear up the matter. Before dealing with the grievances, their causes must be diagnosed. But when the grievance are not expression by the subordinates, it is managers job to detect the potential grievances and their causes.He may realiz e the existence of grievances because of high labour turnover, high rates of absenteeism and poor quality of work. These problems will go on multiplying if the causes of grievance are not cured. While dealing with grievances, a manager laughingstocknot depend upon any readymade solutions. Every case has to be dealt with on its merits. The following guidelines may be followed to deal effectively with the grievances i. The complainant should be given a patient hearing. He should be allowed to express himself completely. ii. The management must show its anxiety to remove the grievances of the workers. iii.If the grievances are real and their causes are known, attempts should be made to remove the causes. iv. If the grievances are imaginary or unfounded, attempts should be made to counsel the workers. Grievance Procedure A grievance is the conceptus of more serious trouble to come because accumulation of minor grievance may lead to major explosions. Therefore, prompt and effective ha ndling of grievance is the key to industrial peace. This calls for systematic procedure of handling grievance for the just and speedy disposal of grievances. There are two types of grievance procedures for redressing the grievance of the employees.These includes i. Open entrance Policy Under the procedure, the employees are free to meet the top executive of the organization and get their grievances redressed. Such a form _or_ system of government may work salubrious in the small organizations, but in big organizations this may not be practicable because the top executive will be too fill in other matters. Another disadvantage of open-door policy is that lower level executives feel bypassed. This may complicate the human relations problems. Moreover, top management is not too familiar with the working conditions of the operative employees.It may be difficult for it to attend to employee grievances because of lack of sufficient information. Lastly, it is also said that the open do or policy is suitable for executives to walk through and not the operative employees. The employees may even hesitate to go to top executives with their grievances. Because of these difficulties, stepladder procedure may be pick out ii. Step- ladder Procedure Under this procedure, the aggrieved employee has to proceed step b step in getting his grievance heard and redressed. Firstly, he has to present his grievance in writing to his supervisor or foreman.If he is not satisfied with his decision, he may go to the head of the department. There may by a joystick grievance citizens committee after the decision of the head of the department is not acceptable to the employee. If the committee also fails to redress his grievance, the matter may be referred to the party boss executive. The grievance procedure will be said to be exhausted if the chief executive is also not able to redress the grievance. The workers should not take any action against the management until the whole grievan ce procedure has been exhausted. Filing of written Grievance Grievance unbidden Arbitration Chief ExecutiveJoint Grievance military commission Head of department Supervisor or Foreman S E T T L E M E N T The grievance assumes the form of a conflict after the workers is not satisfied with the decision of the chief executive. For maintaining industrial peace in the plant, it is advisable to refer such grievance to the voluntary arbitration. The award of the arbitration should be binding on both the parties. Grievance Procedure in Indian Industry In India, gag law of settlement of grievance did not receive adequate attention in the legislative framework till the enactment of industrial occupation (standing orders) Act, 1946, and the Factories Act, 1948.The Industrial Employment Act provides that every establishment employing 100 or more workers should frame Standing orders which should contain, among other matters, provision for means of redressed for workmen against unfair treatme nt or illicit actions by the employer or his agents or servants. Similarly, section 49 of the Factories Act provides for the appointment of Welfare ships officers in every factory wherein 500 or more workers are ordinarily employed. These officers are generally entrusted with the task of dealing with complaints and grievances of the workers or employees.The 15th session of the Indian restriction league (July 1957) took up the matter of establishing a grievance procedure acceptable to both the management and workers union in an industrial unit and a sub-committee was formed for the purpose. The 16th session of the Indian Labour Conference (1958) approved the principles of industrial tick evolved by the committee. A Model Grievance Procedures which is a part of engrave of discipline was drawn up. The model grievance procedure envisages the creation of a grievance machinery to administer the procedure.According to it workers representatives are to be elected for a department or t heir union is to nominate them. Otherwise workers representatives on the workers committee are to be taken as their representatives. The management has to specify the persons in each department who are to process the grievance at the second step. These representatives of workers and management are to constitute the joint, bipartite grievance committee. It should be noted that the whole procedure is time bound. Industrial RelationsTraditionally, the term industrial relations is used to cover such aspects of industrial life as collective bargaining, workers participation in management, discipline and grievance handling, industrial disputes, and interpretation of rules, labour laws, etc. thus, industrial relations are often seen as con essayts which limit the ability of the organization rather are often seen as constraints which limit the ability of the organization rather than an chance to develop collaborative problem solving relationship.The industrial relation (IR) function in maj ority of the organizations suffers from lack of planning, absence of human relations policies and predominance of short perspective in resolving labour-management problems. The continuous neglect of industrial relations function has resulted in problems like poor work-culture, undiscipline, flouting of authority, coercion and blackmailing by unions, rise of sumptuary practices, lack of plebeian trust, frustration of workers, alienation of workers, etc. The concept of Industrial RelationsThe term Industrial Relation refers to all types of relationships mingled with all the parties concerned with industry. The parties related to industry are the workers and the management representing the owners. Thus, industrial relations connote a vast complex of relationships obtaining amid management and employees, union and management, union and employees and in the midst of employees themselves. two parties to industrial relation have a prevalent interest in industry, but many a time, th ey are found to be pulling n difference directions which lead to industrial unrest. Therefore, it has become necessary to secure the cooperation of both workers and management to achieve good industrial relations. Besides management and workers, State is another(prenominal) party associated with industrial relations. The interference of government in industrial relations through legal and administrative measure is quite common. Thus, the area of industrial relations has been extended to relations among the state, employer and employees.According to Encyclopedia Britannica, The subject of industrial relations includes individual relations and joint consultations between employers and workers at the place of work, collective relations between employers and their organizations and trade unions and part played by the state in regulating these relations. According to Dale Yoder The term industrial relations refers to the relationship between management and employees or among employees a nd their organization that arise out of employment. In modern usage, the phrase industrial relations includes the whole gamut of matters that arise due to the continuing relationship between the employers and the workers. Its compass includes three rarely distinct areas 1. Relations between mangers and individual workers 2. The collective relations between employers and labour (trade) union and 3. The role of government in the commandment of these relationships. These three closely associated areas are often referred to respectively as personnel management, collective bargaining and labour legislation. Parties to Industrial RelationsSimply stated, industrial relations are the upshot of the employment relationships in industry. The government of a nation influences these relations to a great extent. Thus, there are three major variables in industrial relations i. Workers and their Organizations the personal characteristics of workers, their culture, educational improvements, quali fications, skills, attitude towards worker, etc. play an important role in industrial relations. Workers organizations, known as trade unions, are political institutions. muckle unions are formed for safeguarding the frugal and social interests of the workers.They put pressure on the management for the achievement of these objectives. ii. Employers and their organizations The employers are a very important variable in industrial relations. They provide employment to workers and try to regulate their behavior for getting high productivity from them. Industrial unrest generally arises when the employers demand from the workers is very high and they offer low economic and other benefits. In order to increase their bargaining power, employers in several industries have organized employers associations.These associations put pressure on the trade unions and the government. They also participated in tripartite bodies constituted by the government to regulate industrial relations. iii. G overnment the government exerts an important influence on industrial relations through such measures as providing employment, intervening in working relationships and regulating wages, bonus and working conditions through various laws relating to labour. The government keeps an eye on both the trades unions and employers organizations to regulate their activities in the interest of the nation. Objectives of Industrial RelationsThe primary objective of industrial relation is to maintain good and healthy relations between the workers and the management in the enterprise. Al other objectives revolve around this primary objectives. Some of the important objectives are listed below i. To promote healthy labour-management relations. ii. To promote the interests of employees as well as management by securing the highest level of mutual understanding and goodwill among them. iii. To raise productivity to a high level which is the need of the day and to contributed to the economic developm ent of the country. v. To check industrial conflicts and minimize the occurrence of strikers, lockouts and gheraos. v. To minimize labour turnover and absenteeism by providing job satisfaction to the workers. vi. To facilitate and develop industrial majority rule based on workers partnership in management of industry. vii. To establish government control over industries to regulate production and industrial relations. Significance of Good Industrial Relations or Industrial Peace Good industrial relations refer to harmonious relations between the labour union and the management in an organization.In other words, in such a situation, there is absence of industrial disputes between the two parties and presence of understanding and cooperation between them. Thus, industrial relations in an organisation must be harmonious or cordial. Such relations can lead to the following benefits 1. Industrial peace Cordial industrial relations bring harmony and remove causes of disputes. This leads t o industrial peace which is an ideal situation for an industrial unit to concentrate on productivity and ingathering. 2. Higher productivity repayable to cordial industrial relations, workers take interest in their jobs and work efficiently. his leads to higher productivity and production of the enterprise where they are working. Thus, they will contribute to the economic growth of the nation. 3. Industrial Democracy Sound industrial relations are based on consultation between the workers and the management. This assists in the establishment of industrial democracy in the organization which motivates employees to contribute their best to the success of the organization. 4. Collective Bargaining Good industrial relations are extremely helpful for entring into long-term agreements as regard various issues between labour and management.Effective collective bargaining and association of employees in decision- making process will bring about cooperation between labour and management. 5 . pretty Benefits to workers The workers should get sufficient economic and non- economic benefits to lead a happy life. It is possible when the relations between workers and management are cordial and the productivity is high. The employers can afford higher benefits to the workers. 6. High Morale Good industrial relations imply the existence of an atmosphere of mutual cooperation, confidence, and respect within the enterprise.In such an atmosphere, there are common designs, which motivate all memebers of the organization to contribute their best. Consequently, there is higher productivity, higher income and increased, job satisfaction all resulting in higher team spirit of the workforce. 7. Facilitation of change Sound industrial relations, by creating a climate of co-operative and confidence make the process of change easy. Hence, full advantage of last inventions, innovations and other scientific advancement can be obtained.The workforce easily adjusts itself to required ch anges for better(p)ment. Industrial Unrest Industrial peace in a country is an important pre- condition for its industrial development. Industrial peace implies the existence of harmonious relationship between the management and the workers. When the relationship between the management and the workers is not cordial, industrial atmosphere is not peaceful. Such a situation is known as industrial unrest. In other words, industrial unrest refers to discontent and conflict between employers and employees.It takes the shape of strikes, lock-outs, demonstrations, etc. The relations between the employers and the employees are frequently clouded by a sense of exploitation, distrust and discontent. They give rise to industrial conflicts or disputes. Perhaps an industrial dispute is the most acute problem in industrial organization because it endangers peace in the industry. Some of the symptoms of industrial unrest are high labour turnover, disciplinary problems, absenteeism and tardiness, critical personal rating, low morale, restriction of output, etc. t is important to note that strikes and lock-outs have come to stay almost permanently in the industrial set-up of many countries. Maintenance of harmonious human relations in an organization depends upon the promotion and maintenance of discipline. No organization can proper without discipline. school has been a matter of utmost concern for all organizations. There are some people who believe that maintenance of discipline is the concern of only higher echelons of an organization. But in actual practice, discipline is concerned with employees at all levels.Broadly speaking, discipline means orderly behavior of individuals towards the desired goals of the group. The word discipline owes its starting time to religion, but it was in the army that it helped achieve spectacular results. When big battles were won not by the numerically superior army, but by the one that had better disciplined soldiers who had a very high morale, a more intense motivation to win, and had the benefits of effective leadership, popular imagination marveled at such achievements. school, thus, came to be equated with the army.But now it is widely used in schools, colleges, industries and other institutions. The concept of Industrial landing dramatics Discipline in industry may be described as ordain cooperation and observation of the rules and regulations of the organization. It means securing consistent behaviour in accordance with the accepted norms of behaviour. Discipline is essential to a democratic way of life. Simply stated, discipline means orderliness. It implies the absence of chaos, irregularity and confusion in the behaviour of workers. In other words, disciplined workers cooperate andbehave in a normal and orderly way.Discipline may be defined as a force that prompts individuals or groups to observe the rules, regulation and procedures which are deemed to be necessary for the effective functioning of an organization. According to Ordway Tead, Discipline is the orderly conduct of affairs by the members of an organization, who adhere harmoniously in forwarding towards the end which the group has in view, and willingly recognize that. Discipline is said to be good when employees willingly follow companys rules and it is said to be bad when employees follow rules unwillingly or actually disobey them.According to some people, discipline is a positive concept in as much as that the absence of indiscipline does not imply a state of discipline. Too often, discipline has been oriented towards punishment for the past misdeeds. Many managers and supervisors see discipline primarily as a mean to enforce external demands for responsible behaviour. Instead they brook orderly behaviour to depend primarily on fear of penalties. Thus, they exercise discipline as a punishment. But this is a negative approach which should be abandoned by the managers and supervisors in order to secure good human re lation in industry.Manager should adopt a positive approach to deal with indiscipline in the organization. Attempts should be made to educate the workers the value of discipline. The workers should be taught self-discipline because it is the highest form of discipline in any group activity. Management should give more emphasis in educating the workers in order to change their attitude towards their work and work-place. Disciplinary action should be taken only in exceptional heap where no other alternative is left. It must be based on the consideration of just cause and due process of law.Aspects of Discipline There are two aspects of discipline, viz. , positive and negative aspects which are discussed below 1. Positive Aspect Employees believe in and support discipline and adhere to the rules, regulations and desired standards of behaviour. Discipline takes the form of positive support and reinforcement for approved actions and its aim is to help the individual in moulding his beha viour and developing him in a corrective and supportive manner. This type of approach is called positive approach or constructive discipline or self- discipline.Positive discipline take place whenever the organizational climates is marked by aspects such as payment of adequate remuneration and incentives, appropriates avenues for career advancement, appreciation of proper performance, reinforcement of approved personnel behaviour or actions, etc. , which all motivate employees to adhere to organization rules and regulations or exercise self- control. 2. Negative Aspect Employees sometimes do not believe in discipline. As such, they do not adhere to rules, regulations and desired standards of behaviour.As such, disciplinary programmed forces and constraints the employees to obey orders and function in accordance with set rules and regulations through warnings, penalties and other forms of punishment. This approach to discipline is called negative approach or collective approach or pu nitive approach. This approach is autocratic in nature as the subordinates are given no role in formulating the rules and they are not told why they are punished. Negative or enforced discipline connotes that personnel are forced to observe rules and regulations on account of fear of reprimand, fine demotion, or transfer.But these are helpful in extracting Just minimum standard of performance from the employees since they work on account of the fear they have got. In fact, punishment, penalties, demotions and transfers provide or establish a climate which demotivates the employees. Hence, such climate is not helpful for the accomplishment of group goals and for enhancing the morale of employees. Importance of Discipline in Industry Discipline is the very essence of life. Absence of discipline means chaos and disorder. An industrial enterprise is an organic whole in which a variety of forces act in unison towards the attainment of its ultimate aims.Obviously, smooth and effective fun ctioning demands a high degree of co-ordination among the various elements which form integral parts of an organization. In an industry, big or small, manpower is the most important factor. Manpower can be used effectively only if there is discipline in the industry. Discipline should not be brought about by fear or punitive actions, it should be brought voluntarity. A man may work in the required manner under compulsion, but he may constantly be in conflict with his natural impulse and thus be under a continues strain which he cant be considered conductive to good social relations in the work-group.What is really required is to take steps to promotion mutual confidence between the employees and the employers and highlight the identity of their interest, which are so essential to bring about the necessary discipline. Maintenance of discipline is a prerequisite for the attainment of maximum productivity, not only of the workers but also of the entire nation. It is only because of thi s that the underlying philosophy of discipline is conceived as inherent in the whole field of industrial relations.Viewed against this background, self-discipline is the highest form of discipline and management efforts should be directed to encourage this. True discipline is education because it changes the very attitude of the workers towards their work and work-place. It must, therefore, be realized that discipline is to developed from within. It has to be reformative and not punitive. Preventive and Settlement Machinery of Industrial Disputes Lasting industrial peace requires that the causes of industrial disputes should be eliminated. In other words, preventive steps should be taken so that industrial disputes do not occur.But if preventive machinery fails, then the industrial disputes settlement machinery should be excited by the Government because non- settlement of disputes will prove to be very costly to the workers, management and the society as a whole. MACHINERY FOR HAND LING INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES Labour Court Industrial Tribunals National Tribunals Conciliation get on Conciliation Officers Voluntary Arbitration Conciliation Court of Enquiray Adjudication Workers Participation in management Standing Orders many-sided Bodies Collective Bargaining Code of disciplineGrievance Procedure Settlement Machinery Preventive Machinery Preventive Machinery The preventive machinery has been set up with a view to creating harmonious relations between labours and management so that disputes do not arise. It comprise of the following measures 1. Workers participation in management It is a method whereby the workers are allowed to be consulted and to have a saying the management of the unit. The important schemes of workers participation are works committees, joint management council (JMC), shop council and joint council.These have been discussed later in this book. 2. Collective Bargaining According to Dale Yoder, Collective Bargaining is the term used to describe a situation in which essential conditions of employment determined by bargaining process undertaken by representatives of a group of workers on the one hand and of one or more employers on the other. Collective bargaining not only includes negotiation, administration and enforcement of the written contracts between the employers and employees, but also includes the process of resolving labour- management conflicts.The role of collective bargaining fore solving the issues arising between the management and the workers at the plant or industry level has been widely recognized. Labour legislation and the machinery for its implementation prepare a framework according to which industrial establishment should operate. But whenever labours laws may lay down, it is the approach of employers and trade union leaders which matters. Unless both are enlightened, industrial harmony is not possible. Therefore, the solution to common problems can be found directly through negotiation between both p arties and in this context, he scope of collective bargaining is very wide. 3. multilateral Bodies Industrial relation in India have been shaped largely by principles and policies evolved though tripartite informative machinery at industry and national levels. The aim of the consultative machinery is to bring the parties together for mutual settlement of difference in a spirit of cooperation and goodwill. 4. Code of discipline Code of discipline is a set of voluntary mutually agreed voluntary principles of discipline and good relation between the management and the workers in industry.In India, code of discipline was approved by the 16th Indian Labour Conference held in 1958. It contain three sets of codes which have already been discussed later in the book. 5. Standing Orders The terms and condition of employment have been a bone of contention between labour and management since the advent of factory system. To prevent the emergence of industrial strive over the condition of emp loyment, one important measure is the standing orders act, 1946, it was made obligatory that Standing Orders would govern the conditions of employment.The Standing Orders regulate the conditions of employment from the stage of entry in the organization to the stage of get by from the organization. Thus they constitute the regulatory pattern for industrial relations. Since the standing orders provide Dos and Donts, they also act as a code of conduct for the employees during their working life within the organization. Industrial Disputes Settlement Machinery The machinery has been provided under the Industrial Disputes Act 1947. It, in fact, provides a legalistic way of setting the disputes.As said above, the goal of preventive machinery is to create an environment where the disputes do not arise at all. Even then if any differences arise, the judicial machinery has been provided to settle them lest they should result into work stoppages. In this sense, the nature of this machinery i s curative for it aims at curing the ailments. This machinery comprises following organs 1. Conciliation Conciliation is a method of resolving the industrial conflict with the help of the tierce party, who intervenes in the dispute situation upon a request by either or the both parties.It is a procedure in which the decision making functions dust the prerogatives of the parties to the disputes as in collective bargaining. The conciliators simply assists them in their negotiations and decision making, he resolves the impasse and remove the bottlenecks Conciliation Officers The law provides for the appointment of expiation officer by the Government to conciliate between the parties to the industrial disputes. The conciliation Officer is given the power of a civil judgeship, whereby he is authorized to call and witness the parties on oath.It should be remembered however, whereas civil court cannot go beyond interpreting the laws, the conciliation offer can go behind the facts and m ake judgment which will be binding upon the parties. Conciliation board In case conciliation Officer fails to resolve the differences between the parties, the government has the discretion to appoint a Board of Conciliation. The Board is tripartite and ad hoc body. It consists of a chairman and two or four other members. The chairman is to be an independent person and other members are nominative in equal numbers by the parties to the dispute.Conciliation proceedings before a Board are similar to those that take place before the conciliation Officer the government has yet another option of referring the dispute to the court of Inquiry instead of the Board of conciliation. 2. Court of Enquiry In case of the failure of the conciliation proceedings to settle a dispute, the government can appoint a court of Inquiry to enquire into any matter connected with or pertinent to industrial disputes. This court is expected to submit its report within six months from the commencement of enquiry . This report is subsequently published by the government within 30 days of its receipt.Unlike during the period of conciliation, workers right to strike, employers right to lockout, and employers right to strike, employers right to lockout, and employers right to dismiss workmen,etc remain unaffected during the proceedings in a court of enquiry. 3. Voluntary Arbitration On failure of conciliation proceedings, the conciliation officer may proceedings the conciliation officer may persuade the parties to refer the dispute to a voluntary arbitrator. Voluntary arbitration refers to getting the disputes settled though an independent person chosen by the parties involved mutually and voluntarily.In other words, arbitrator conjointly appointed by the parties which is usually wasted in case of adjudication. 4. Adjudication The ultimate remedy for the settlement of an industrial dispute is its reference to adjudication by labour court or tribunals when conciliation machinery fails to bring a bout a settlement. Adjudication consists of settling disputes through intervention by the third party appointed by the government. The law provides the adjudication to be conducted by the labour court, Industrial Tribunal and National Tribunal.