Monday, December 23, 2019
Stress affects individuals of all ages, genders, and cultures. Either good or bad it effects daily life and can cause turmoil if not dealt with in a healthy manner. Take for example Josh Jones (client name has been changed to protect their confidentiality) a Caucasian adolescent male living in a rural Oregon school district. At age eleven he has just transitioned from elementary school to middle school and is adjusting to a larger pool of classmates and adapting to higher expectations set by his teachers. Josh is a middle child with two parents, one of whom recently lost their job; these multiple stressors in JoshÃ¢â¬â¢s life have accumulated to the point where Josh is having difficulty managing his stress prompting the following healthÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some stress is good, the eustress, this is short lived stress which motivates individuals to develop good study skills or to make good decisions in difficult or frightening situations. Stress is not so good however when it endures for a long period of time. Distress occurs when an individual feels overwhelmed or out of control in their lives (Handling stress 2012) Long term stress, distress, impacts the body and can inflict negative, long term damage. Physical symptoms of distress can manifest as headaches, upset stomach, elevated blood pressure, chest pain, and problems sleeping, these are just a few of the many effects stress can inflict on the body (The effects of stress on your body 2014). As an adolescent many of these stress symptoms can be detrimental to JoshÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being and functioning in school, for example Josh should be receiving approximately ten hours of sleep a night, if he is unable to achieve that amount it can in turn present problems such as diabetes, obesity and depression (Sleep and sleep disorders 2015) this results in additional stress further exacerbating the issue and putting clients, like Josh, at serious risk of developing these health disorders. In order to prevent these effects of stress Josh must be able to recognize symptoms of stress and be given tools to manage his stress in day to day life. Recognizabl e symptoms include anger, feelings of anxiety and fear
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Introduction The aim of this paper is to discus key historical developments in nursing research and nursing research utilization. The aforementioned events will be grouped into five categories, namely Nursing Research, Nursing Publications, Emergence of Nursing Schools, Establishment of Research Institutes, and Research Utilization. Two examples per category will be presented. We will write a custom essay sample on Key Historical Developments in Nursing Research or any similar topic only for you Order Now Also, the paper will analyze how and to what extent the selected events have influenced nursing research. Nursing Research Many nursing theorists deserve being mentioned in this section, however, the selected ones produced the most significant impact on further nursing research and research utilization. Dorothea E. Orem, the author of Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory, began its development in 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s. The theory holds that adults are generally expected to perform self-care themselves, but if they fail to do so, nursing should be provided. Another important theory, namely Modeling and Role-Modeling theory, was developed by Tomlin, Swain and Erickson. It was presented in a book, which was first published in 1983. Theoretical models exemplified the need for a new approach to nursing. They showed that nursing, like any other science, should be based on Nursing Publications American Journal of Nursing was first published in 1900. It is believed to be not only the oldest but also the most widely read nursing publication in the world. Slightly more than half a century later the first issue of Nursing Research, the official journal of the Eastern Nursing Research Society and the Western Institute of Nursing, was published in 1951. Professional journals are crucial for knowledge exchange among specialists from the given field. In addition, emergence of nursing journals legitimized nursing research as a separate field of study. Emergence of Nursing Schools Yale School of Nursing established in 1923 was the first autonomous to teach and research nursing issues. In 1956 the Columbia University School of Nursing became first in the country to award a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in a clinical nursing. All reputable nursing schools focus not only on teaching but also research. As the official website of Yale School of Nursing informs, the school Ã¢â¬Å"relies heavily on its deep tradition of excellence in researchÃ¢â¬ and assures that at Ã¢â¬Å"one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most distinguished research universities, scholarship reflects the interchange between practice and knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (Yale School of Nursing, 2007, Ã¢â¬Å"Research and ScholarshipÃ¢â¬ ). Establishment of Research Institutes Western Institute of Nursing was established in 1957 as the Western Council on Higher Education for Nursing (WCHEN) and given its present name in 1985. It is best known as the organizer of the annual Communicating Nursing Research conference, the older event of such kind in the United States (The Western Institute of Nursing, 2007). The National Institute for Nursing Research (NINR) was founded in 1986 and played an important role in further advancement of nursing research by offering funding opportunities and coordinating the effort by many dispersed institutions. Both institutions offer small grants for nursing research and sustain a network of organizations and individuals involved in this research. Research Utilization There are different models of nursing research utilization, which were developed during the last four decades. Developed by the Michigan Nurses Association model referred to as Conduct and Utilization of Research in Nursing (CURN) advises determining the credibility of scientific studies before implementation (MacGuire, 2006). Historically, this method can be attributed to 1970s-1980s decades, since the most prominent works advocating this method, namely Ã¢â¬Å"Research utilization as an organizational processÃ¢â¬ (1978) by Horsley, Crane and Bingle, Ã¢â¬Å"Developing research-based innovation protocols: process, criteria, and issuesÃ¢â¬ (1979) by Haller, Reynolds and Horsley, and Ã¢â¬Å"Using Research to Improve Nursing Practice: A GuideÃ¢â¬ (1983) by Horsley, Crane, Crabtree and Wood appeared during these decades. The Stetler Model of Research Utilization and Iowa Model for Research in Practice appeared simultaneously in 1994 (Beyea Nicoll, 1997). The first model establishes six-step model for nursing research utilization (preparation, validation, comparative evaluation, decision making, translation and application, and evaluation), while the latter is based on Quality Assurance Model Using Research (1987) and emphasizes multidisciplinary approach to evidence-based healthcare. The emergence of these models provided a clear framework for the implementation of nursing research findings into everyday nursing practice. Conclusion Nursing research and nursing research utilization evolved over the centuries, yet the most important period in the history of nursing research started in the second half of the 20th centuries due to the emergence of scientific theories, specialized publications, nursing schools, and research institutes. References Beyea,Ã S.C., Nicoll, L.H. (March 1997). Ã¢â¬Å"Research utilization models help disseminate research findings and ultimately improve patient outcomes.Ã¢â¬ AORN Journal, 65(5), 978-9. MacGuire, J.M. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Putting nursing research findings into practice: research utilization as an aspect of the management of change.Ã¢â¬ Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53 (1), 65-71. Yale School of Nursing. (May 25, 2007). Home Page. Retrieved June 17, 2007, from the World Wide Web: http://nursing.yale.edu/ How to cite Key Historical Developments in Nursing Research, Essays
Saturday, December 7, 2019
English speech Good morning, teachers and year 11Ã¢â¬â¢s, Identity is one of the main themes in the novel After the First Death by Robert Cormier. Identity defined is the individual characteristics by which a thing or person is recognized or known by. Throughout the book, Kate, the main character is constantly changing her emotions and the way she acts showing her different sides. When the main character, Kate appears, She is said to be silent. This tells the reader, that she does not want to confront the terrorists, which also brings us to the point that Kate is not a very brave person. When the reader first meets Kate it had said that, She regarded then in shocked silence, mouth agape, eyes wide open with disbelief. This tells the reader that she is terrified and scared. The central theme of self identity is presented multiple times through main characters such as Kate. We will write a custom essay sample on English Speech After The First Death or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page She struggles with finding her true identity and becoming brave. My visual representation represents how Kate and the children on the bus are pure and superior to Miro and artkin. The black and white are conflicting colours and white rocks show that the children and Kate are pure and the black shows Miro and Atkin. The black represents the colours of the balaclavas and the colour of MiroÃ¢â¬â¢s skin. The black also is a less superior colour than white, representing that the children and Kate are more important. The ratio of white to black rocks demonstrations that there more innocent characters than immoral characters in the novel. The jar is the thing that all the characters have in common; they are trapped in this and cannot get out. This represents the situation they are all in. Wanting to get out but cant. ThankyouÃ¢â¬ ¦
Saturday, November 30, 2019
In the recent years, researchers have expressed concerns over the alarming rate in the spread of the use of social network applications. Most researchers agree that the issue deserves attention, which could be attributed to the widespread use of mobile phones due to their availability. With the recent developments and innovations on mobile phones, more social networks applications have come into use.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Social Networks Application in Smartphone specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With Smartphone being one of the recent mobile technologies, widespread use of various social networks applications has been inevitable. In addition, the technology through the utilization of social networks applications has eased our day-to-day operations in various ways. Just as the name suggests, social networks applications are sort of programs that enable or even enhance communication among individ uals regardless of the geographical distance separating them (Goldenberg et al., 2006). However, these social networks applications have had impacts across various aspects of the society in general. This paper shall be based on the application of social networks in Smartphone coupled with my personal social media experience. Apart from the aspect of interacting with friends, the social media technology can be utilized to achieve many other goals that include soliciting funds and an avenue through which one can find a job among other aspects. My social media experience will be based on the use of social media applications to maintain a long distance relationship. The paper shall also highlight some of the implications of utilizing these applications both to an individual and to the society. After John, my closest friend, went to Australia for studies, I could not stand the loneliness. The available few modes of communication were quite expensive and inefficient, especially for the lo ng distance communication. At times, I felt as though our relationship was falling apart as communication was curtailed by the geographical distance between us. Notably, for a relationship to remain steady, communication should be put into consideration and should be consistent. However, we kept on exchanging gifts and communication was through phone calls and other means such as emails and telegraphs. These modes were quite expensive and unreliable at times. For instance, it would take such a long time for John to reply my fax messages and emails, especially if I had sent them without informing him first. On the other hand, we spent a lot of money sending parcels through air couriers. Telephone calls also proved to be expensive since they were international and the call rates were quite high. It even came a time we had to stay for weeks without communicating due to unavailability of funds since we had no jobs and thus we depended on parents for our upkeep.Advertising Looking f or research paper on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Currently, the trend has changed a great deal and we can communicate any time we want. With the latest development of Smartphone among mobile technologies, communication has been eased significantly. Smartphone is a type of mobile phone that has additional features and programs, thus making it better than other mobile phones. A Smartphone can perform different functionality at the same time, which is missing in other normal phones. For instance, a Smartphone comes with a feature that lets the user to divide the screen into different portions and run different tasks on those compartments at the same time. With the introduction of these smart phones into the market, communication between us eased as we were in a position to utilize both free and paid social networks applications that come along with a smart phone (Goldenberg et al., 2006). Apart from G-chats and sh ort messaging applications, we also learnt to utilize other social networks applications to enhance our communication, thus, shortening the distance between us. Through invitations for TV nights, we were able to watch our favorite shows through the Skype together. Through this application, John remained updated on commercials that were being aired back here at home. Meeting new friends and introducing them to each other was quite an easy task. For instance, through the Google hangout application, we managed to arrange for double dates. With social media applications, life seemed normal for us as we were in a position to do most things together. Playing games as scrabble was not such a big deal, as we could still communicate as the game proceeded as though we are physically together. Boredom is one aspect that creeps in when repetitive activities happen for quite a long time, and thus to break away from the monotony of social networks, we could send manual packages to each other. Man y couples and friends find themselves in a dilemma due to geographical distance separating them. Appreciably, it can be quite cumbersome to maintain a long distance relationship. With the emergence and widespread use social networks applications, the challenge of distance should no longer be a hindrance in a relationship, especially in the wake of Smartphones.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Social Networks Application in Smartphone specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, various Smartphones support these applications, hence making communication easier. Social network applications are sort of programs that enable communication through additional modifications that include sharing of pictures, status updates, playing games, and sending messages among many others. Face- to- face communication can be enhanced through Skype, which is an application that allows you to see the other person as you commun icate. Many other activities can be performed through the application, viz. preparing meals together and having dinners through the Internet. In addition, other applications let the communicating parties to send voice notes and video messages if they are not available for a chat. Facebook and Twitter are other types of network applications that allow people to share their feelings through status updates, photographs, and comments among others. However, these applications do not allow face-to-face communication, as they do not support such features. Currently, a myriad of social networks can be utilized to keep a long distance relationship. In addition, social networks can be utilized for other purposes other than maintaining relationships. For instance, in the political arena, politicians utilize social networks to launch their manifestos and make them available to citizens. In the field of medicine, there exist social network applications that can be utilized by medics to treat pat ients in other countries and regions. On the part of education, social networks are used to convey reading materials and other academic information to students; therefore, enhancing electronic learning (Goldenberg et al., 2006). In maintaining long distance relationships, the concept of creativity on the usage of social media plays a key role in ensuring effective and exciting communication. Although social networks have played a significant role in enhancing communication, they have had both positive and negative impacts to individuals and the society in general. Conventionally, social networks have helped in making the world a global village. With just a click, information can be relayed to persons quite far away from each other. Through these social networks, people have been in a position to create identities whereby people can search a personÃ¢â¬â¢s profile through the social media. Connecting with people in the community has been enhanced through these social networks, hence maintaining relationships (Hill et al., 2006). Although conversation could take place through phone calls, connecting to many people at the same time was such a difficult task. In addition, one could only speak to people familiar to him or her, since not all people were willing to share their numbers. With the emergence of social networks, the idea of friendships changed as one could make many friends within a short time and communicate with multiple individuals simultaneously.Advertising Looking for research paper on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Researchers have established that loneliness can result into people taking actions that lead to destruction of their own lives in addition to stress and depression. However, through social networks, people can socialize and thus do away with loneliness (Boyd, 2008). Through social media, people share life experiences, hence depicting a sort of group therapy. The point is, by people sharing their experiences, they can empathize with each other and one can easily find solutions to his or her problems. One person may have gone through such an experience previously and can inform the other on how he or she went through the whole situation. Social media enhances the speed of communication, thus ensuring speedy and efficient communication. Currently, time is never enough to most people because of work and commitments to family. Social networks offer a chance to this class of people to communicate with other efficiently and effectively. For instance, it takes an individual less than a minu te to post updates to one social network, say Facebook, and with the help of a feature that allows cross posting to other social networks, the updates reaches all intended parties instantly. The social media opens up the world to an individual through making it a smaller place as opposed to the earlier days when these applications were inexistent. Social networks have also created the aspect of equality towards everyone regardless of the geographical location. For instance, families living far apart can remain in touch with the rest of the family members living in the hometown. One can also connect with school friends that have relocated to other towns or states. Sharing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s interests is one of the ways through which social networks can be utilized to create identity (Goldenberg et al., 2009). For instance, some social networks allow a person choose people with similar interests for friendship. On the other hand, others like Twitter will let a person follow those with statu ses of interest, thus making connections with people with similar interests, which would be hard to establish if socializing offline. The aspect of socialization can be viewed in different dimensions including the economic dimension through marketing and other aspects of commerce. Social network applications enhance network-marketing techniques that help marketers identify influencers and predict variables affecting the behavior depicted by various consumers (Hill et al., 2006). Depending on how people behave on various social network sites, marketers can easily identify characteristics of various individuals, demographics of a certain state or region, and any form of existing constraints, hence leading to identification of market gaps that depict a marketing opportunity. Just like most issue in life, social networks also have positive and negative impacts attached to them. On the part of education, the social media has a direct impact on the value of information (Acquisti Gross, 2 006). For instance, friends usually influence the shaping of mind especially for children and teenagers. Currently, there has been an array of social media that when utilized can influence a personÃ¢â¬â¢s way of thinking and perceptions. From the analysis of my experience, both of us were in a position to influence each other negatively, which could happen through video clips shared through various sites such as MySpace. The same information could be extended to other friends back at school. The same information is also made available in social media through blogs, video clips, and audio in the form of songs. Currently, children have access to social media, hence exposure to apparent dangers associated with social media. When children log into these social websites, they might end up disclosing crucial information to child predators and scammers (Acquisti Gross, 2006). They are also subject to cyber bullying in addition to getting access to unsuitable sites and pages. For instanc e, a child may arrange for a meeting with a stranger through social media, only to be found dead after the meeting. This threat calls for parents to put stringent measures on their children against the utilization of social networks. On the other hand, social media is a time-waster among starters as quite a significant proportion of time is spent on these sites while ignoring other constructive chores and tasks. Researchers carried some surveys and disclosed that more than a third of interviewees confessed to spending time on Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace among other social network applications. Time spent is usually spent on editing profiles, posting photographs, and comments, which are not necessarily urgent or necessary (Boyd, 2008). Through social networks, the subject of privacy is highly compromised (Acquisti Gross, 2006). For instance, people post photographs into these sites and can be accessed by different people who log in into the site. Sharing of information with frien ds also depicts a compromise of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy. The future of social networks applications is quite promising despite the many controversies surrounding the utilization of these sites. Information technology specialists should engage in various innovations in a bid to come up with competitive packages that suit different user needs in the market. These specialists also need to understand that consumerism is not only limited to cloud services and mobile devices, but also social network applications (Hill et al., 2006). Social network applications can be utilized for other purposes apart from communication, especially in the business world. Currently, business organizations are shifting towards enterprise social applications that best suit their needs. For instance, a company may have trouble in distributing information especially to mobile employees. Innovations should be incorporated into social applications to make them useful. For instance, the incorporation of news feeds an d real time technologies into social applications can help employees to remain productive and stay in the loop (Goldenberg et al., 2006). Unlike when business organizations used blogs and intranets to pass messages to their employees, they have shifted to sleek and fun -filled options that are found in social networks applications (Goldenberg et al., 2009). This aspect forms a platform for IT specialists to incorporate enterprise collaboration software into various social networks to be utilized. In a bid to enhance efficiency in the utilization, specialists should be in a position to advise various organizations on the best packages for their organization. Reference List Acquisti, A., Gross, R. (2006). Imagined communities: Awareness, information sharing, and privacy on the Facebook. In P. Golle G. Danezis (Eds.), Proceedings of 6th Workshop on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (pp. 36-58). Cambridge, UK: Robinson College. Boyd, D. (2008). Why youth (heart) social network sites: The role of networked publics in teenage social life. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Youth, Identity, and Digital Media (pp. 119-142). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Goldenberg, J., Han, S., Lehman, D., Hong, J. (2009). The Role of Hubs in the Adoption Process. Journal of Marketing, 73(2), 1Ã¢â¬â13. Goldenberg, J., Lehman, D., Shidlovski, D., Barak, M. (2006). The role of expert versus social opinion leaders in new product adoption. MSI Working Paper,Ã Report No.06-124, 1-16. Hill, S., Foster, P., Chris, V. (2006). Network-based Marketing: Identifying Likely Adopters via Consumer Networks. Statistical Science, 21(2), 256-276. This research paper on Social Networks Application in Smartphone was written and submitted by user Kellen A. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, November 25, 2019
A Visit To A Small Planet essays In A Visit To A Small Planet, many human faults are indirectly scrutinized and ridiculed, adding hints of satire to the interesting comedy. One of the faults being derided, is the fact that although our race does not enjoy nor promote violence and war, it still occurs and we still do things to provoke it. The ridiculing in the story is very clear-cut and ironic, thanks to Kretons unusual character. His thoughts and views on our generation make the authors point all too obvious. He needed Kretons outsider views to bring out the satire in the story and reinforce his opinion, which is strangely in truth. When he tried to convince the other characters in the play of his thoughts on humans enjoying and thrilling in violence, they deny it just as much as they deny hating each other. But no matter how they object, he points out again and again of the malice and hostility we hold for others, once more emphasizing the storys irony. Another element of mockery represented, is that although we believe in protecting ourselves from dangerous circumstances and hostile people, we in fact are more hostile than needed. In the episode of Kretons arrival, the General and his troops are cautious and rancorous towards him, even when Kreton showed no sign of intention to cause harm. Overall, our race tends to put impressions on others and ourselves that dont always agree with what we feel: our actions contradict with our morals, and thats what causes many problems in our society. ...
Friday, November 22, 2019
A Personal Recount on Volunteering at the Citizen Jane Film Festival This film festival is the most unique, inspirational and crucial festival out there, and the women of Stephens are truly blessed to be such a substantial part of it. Citizen Jane features the best of these women who work so hard to get their names in out in a male dominated industry. Citizen Jane administers them a voice in this male dominated industry. This festival gives credit to numerous talented independent filmmakers and showcases their beautiful, conceptual and ingenious masterpieces. Hopefully one day I will be amongst these women. Being from Columbia, I had heard a bit of what Citizen Jane was about but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until last year that I truly got the full experience. I was a senior in highschool who had just finished working as an extra on the short film I Am One directed by Steph Borklund, who happened to be one of the volunteer coordinators, when I started getting emails about volunteering at Citizen Jane. With my new found passion for movies, I decided it would be a good opportunity to get to see the festival life. I signed up and became a part of the merch crew, unfortunately I had gotten into a car accident days before the festival and was only able to make it to one of my shifts, but that was enough. Even though merch wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the most exciting or inspirational, I fell in love with the atmosphere of the festival. It felt like somewhere I belonged. This year my luck with volunteering was also terrible, but I was able to make it too a panel called Ã¢â¬Å"The Stories We TellÃ¢â¬ . In this panel 4 directors, with films at the festival, talked about how they got into making movies, what inspired them and various other questions from the audience. I was mesmerized, each of the women had such interesting opinions on various things. The panel made me realise that making movies was possible. When you go to see a movie you never really think about the director, they are just a name on the screen who made something magical happen before you. Getting to sit down with some of these ladies opened up a whole new world, it made the movies more tangible, you end up having a deeper connection to the movie after learning what went behind it. Many of the women on the panel said things that have stuck with me, one being Ã¢â¬Å"it was filling my bank account but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t filling my heart.Ã¢â¬ Patricia Krenwinkel, director of Life Af ter Manson, said this as she was talking about how she moved from studio work to doc films. I think it resonated with me so much because of the fact that nowadays so many people are so obsessed with getting money that they end up in situations where they hate what they are doing, and her being a woman and dropping everything to go after what she loved was truly inspirational. Another thing I absolutely loved was the collaboration between Leah Meyerhoff, director of I Believe in Unicorns, and her lead actress, Natalia Dyer. She said that she had an idea of where she wanted to go with the film but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t until she had found her lead actress that the pieces fell into place, and that Natalia inspired the film just as much as her own mind. I think collaborations between actors and directors to make films is an incredible one because then its not only Ã¢â¬Å"the directors filmÃ¢â¬ but a little bit of everyone goes into it. If I am ever graced with the opportunity to be a dire ctor or actor in a film this would be the relationships I would aim to have. Next year I plan to volunteer, knock on wood. I would love to help out in any way I can, this festival is ran almost solely on the work and hours put in by volunteers and I believe what you put into it you get out of it, and then some. The movies are the main focus, but if I could give any advice to festival goers it would be to do the extra stuff. There is where you truly learn the most and experience the true essence of the festival. As a filmmaker in training showcasing my work at Citizen Jane would be an honor, I would love to have an impact on a young girls dreams as some of these women have done for me.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Apple Corporation Corporate Responsibility and Marketing Strategies - Essay Example The paper tells that Apple Corporation like many other multinationals has a code of conduct that guides its operations. It prides itself on being committed to the highest social, environmental and ethical responsibility. The company warns that failure to abide by the code of conduct attracts penalties among them termination of any business engagement with the supplier in question. Some of the issues addressed in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s code of conduct guide are addressed below: Apple Corporation expects those who work for their suppliers to be treated with dignity and with respect. As such fundamental issues of human rights need to be addressed and employees should not be discriminated on a basis such as age, religious affiliation, gender, sexual orientation, belonging to labor unions, marital status among other issues. In addition, harassment of any nature is discouraged by the company including forced labor or slavery. Also, the company warns its suppliers against restricting movement of its employees or confiscating identification documents belonging to them so as to hamper their mobility. The code of conduct also warns employees against employing persons who are under age and proposes a minimum age of 15 years. Those employing students should ensure that their education is not interfered with and that proper records should be kept to check on their progress. Safety of all employees is to be observed which includes availing reasonable working hours and providing employees with proper working tools and equipment. The health of all employees is to be observed through the provision of the clean working environment including toilets, eating, sleeping places and other social places.
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Trust and Equity - Essay Example Even if the parties mentioned the word trust when transfer the properties to another, the court still needs to look into the true intentions of the parties. For the trust to be valid, the full intentions of the parties should be clearly stated in the trust agreement (see Re Adams and the Kensington Vestry (1884)2. The absence of a clear showing of the true intentions of the parties will negate the validity of the trust. In the case at bar, Sedwick merely told his wife that he is transferring the money to her account in case something goes wrong. The words in case something goes wrong is so vague and there is really no clear showing what Sedwick really wants his wife to with the money. According to the case of Knight v Knight (1840)3, for a valid trust to ensue, mandatory words has to be given directing the trustee as to what to do with the properties entrusted to it. In the case at bar, since there was no clear showing as to what is the true intention of the parties involved, the bequest of the money can arguably be construed as a form of gift (see Milroy v Lord (1862)4. Given these circumstances, the wife can assert her right over the property. On the other hand, Sedwick may still be able to recover the property by claiming that the bequest was incomplete (Jones v Locke (1865)5. According to the court in the case of Milroy v Lord (1862)6, it is necessary for the original owner of the property to perform all acts within his or her powers to divest him/herself of his/her rights over the property or money for the gift to be deemed as complete. The facts of the case show that the creation of the trust is valid. The three requisites of the validity of a trust according to the Knight v Knight (1840)7 are fulfilled. Note that the intention of the parties is clear (Midland Bank v Wyatte (1995)8, the subject matter of the trust is well established (Palmer v Simmonds (1854)9; Boyce v Boyce (1849)10 and the objects of the trust can be clearly determined (Morice v
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The British government in the Second World War Essay However, many children had bad experiences of evacuation, and this would strongly suggest that evacuation was a failure. Source B is a description of evacuation from a teacher in 1988. It says how children were too afraid to talk and how the mothers were pressed against the iron bars calling Good-bye darling. This shows how scary evacuation was for so many children; as well as their mothers; many of them had no clue as to where they were going. As this is an interview with a teacher, it is likely to be an accurate and reliable, it also reflects the experiences of many evacuees. Source C is an account from childrens novel; it outlines the problems of communication between foster parents and their children evacuees. Oh, Im sorry, how silly of me, why should we have slippers? Many foster parents were surprised at how poor their children were and had to pay out for their requirements. Source E is from a Mass Observation Survey, it is an interview with a farther, he outlines the reasons why many parents think that there children will be better staying at home in the city. Where his children would be sent, in the shires, there is nothing for them; they were starving before the war. He also thinks that if he does die, at least friends and family can look after his children. This is very likely to be a reliable source, as it is from a mass ordinance survey, where the father would have no reason to lie. It shows how the government had failed to persuade people that evacuation is the safest place for their children. A womans institute report on evacuees in 1940 tells us how the uncleanness of children would have decreased morale within foster parents, this is another example of how disgusted many foster parents were at the condition of their child Some of the children were literally sewn in their ragged clothes. This is a very reliable source, again with no reason to lie, it reflects my own knowledge that the town children who came to stay with foster parents proved to the British public that slum conditions still existed in Britain. In an interview with Michael Caine, we hear how Caine was beat and locked in the cupboard after his brother Clarence had been found wetting the bed. This is an example of how the Government had failed to protect the welfare of the children who were evacuated into the country, some were abused sexually, but these were few in numbers. This was not a common experience, but the fact that it happened is very worrying that that the Government had failed to stop such events happening. An account from an evacuee tells us how he was evacuated from Gateshead, which was not bombed throughout the war to Dudley in the Midlands, which was bombed during his stay. This is an example of total failure with evacuation. Not only had the government unnecessarily sent children away from towns which were not bombed, which would decrease morale within the community as many families would wish to stay together during the war. Also, the children had been sent to an area which had been bombed, and had been unnecessarily evacuated from a safe area to an area where their lives were in danger. Though this is uncommon with experiences of evacuees, it could easily have been avoided. By 1944 the evacuation scheme had all but stopped, and not even the panic caused by Hitlers flying bombs and rockets could get it started. This is where the Government had failed to keep up the morale of the country and persuade people that evacuation was the best and safest option for their children and people no longer cared about the possible consequences. The evacuation process was efficient and with a quick response to war. With little notice, children were packed up with only one suitcase and sent to the railway station to catch a train that they did not know the destination of their journey. On arrival, they were lined up and picked out like slaves. Though many experienced a new life style, in the countryside learning new skills that they would never be taught in the city and they became more healthy and clean with their foster parents. Forced integration of people from very different backgrounds exposed the real divide present in the country. Evacuation was certainly the safest option for the children, and the majority experienced a happy new life, where they became healthier, however, no one was without their problems. Mothers, children and foster parents alike were not informed about what was involved in fostering children, in some cases the children were abused or made to labour on farms, in these cases the government had failed the children. Many however, were happy with evacuation but no one was un scared by the horrors of war.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Throughout life people are faced with a variety of hurdles. How they choose to overcome these hurdles determines whether they become successful or not, it would be nice if there was an instruction manual to tell one how to be successful, how to overcome these hurdles. One of the most difficult hurdles facing people today is college. Often times people go into college with their eyes closed tightly, meaning they are totally unprepared for what lyeÃ¢â¬â¢s ahead. There are a variety of aspects that determine whether students are successful in college. Meeting basic requirements to enter college, selecting the right courses, learning how to study on the college level, and managing time are all key factors in becoming a successful college student. To enroll in college, one must first meet the basic requirements of that institution. Requirements for some colleges are more difficult than others. To be successful in college, one must choose a college in which they meet the basic requirements. For almost all academically based colleges, a basic requirement is a high school diploma or G.E.D. Some colleges base acceptance on the students high school grade point average. Colleges with difficult admission requirements are looking not only for a student with a good grade point average, but are also looking for a well rounded individual. This basically means that not only are the admissions people looking for above average grades, but they are also looking for outside of school or extracurricul...
Monday, November 11, 2019
Analyse the selected television news extracts (from the screening) showing your understanding and ability to apply Personalisation and impartiality to your own critical discussion. In this essay I will analyse ITV 1, BBC 1 and Channel 4Ã¢â¬â¢s News programmes. I will give detailed definitions of impartiality and personalisation; I will investigate the concepts of personalisation and impartiality and use them to critically evaluate the news. I will examine how these three news broadcasters incorporate personalisation and impartiality into their news programmes. I will now discuss the concepts of personalisation and define what personalisation is. Ã¢â¬ËPersonalisation wherever possible, events are seen as the actions of people as individuals thus the NHS cuts may be put on an agenda by Baby X not getting the operation s/he needs,Ã¢â¬â¢ (Branston & Stafford, 1996: 138). Branston and Stafford, imply that personalisation within the news is reporting the news and relating it to the general public or a social issue. This example of the NHS making cuts, and effecting baby x can be reported in a certain way that it affects the general public. For example, Ã¢â¬ËyouÃ¢â¬â¢ the viewer can suggest an individual person or social group being affected by something in the news. In this case the subject of a baby provides a human interest in the news story. Williams claims that, Ã¢â¬ËThere is no subject, no abstract thing that cannot be translated in terms of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ (Williams, 1958: 220). An example of this concept in recent news is in The Sun newspaper, there is a story about the recent re-imprisonment of one of Jamie Buglers killer. Ã¢â¬ËThe SunÃ¢â¬â¢ have set up a petition demanding the government to reveal the official reason for his return to jail. The newspaper then encourages the readers to add their names to a petition which they had set up on their website www. thesun. co. uk. This is an attempt to directly involve and engage with the reader, emotionally pulling them in by personalising the language. Private personalisation within the news has resulted in the news becoming dumbed down and info-tainment. There is an increasing amount of news broadcasters using personalisation in the news, wether it is citing the public, polls, public opinion, texts, online forums emails, vox pops, or the use of celebrity personalities, by using Twitter, Facebook or the broadcast forums. The infotainment debate is an argument about the relationship between television and public lifeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦according to the prevailing wisdom, TV news ought to conform as much as possible to the existing generic format of a serious newspaperÃ¢â¬â¢ (Creeber, 2001: 118-119). An example of infotainment can be seen when the news of John TerryÃ¢â¬â¢s affair was published. This story received more press converge than the upcoming general election. This asks the question, is the general public more interested in the sex lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s of footballers than an election that will affect their lifes? I will now move onto define the word impartiality; impartiality is defined as a, Ã¢â¬Ësound practice that makes clear distinction between news reports and expressions of opinion. News reports should be free of opinion or bias of any kindÃ¢â¬â¢ (American Society of Newspaper Editors, 1923 in Allan 2004:22) In other words news broadcasters are legally required to broadcast unbiased and balance news reports. Ofcom state that news broadcasters have Ã¢â¬Ëto ensure that news, in whatever form, is reported with due accuracy and presented with due impartialityÃ¢â¬â¢. (www. ofcom. org. k/tv/ifi/codes/bcode/undue/) Impartiality associated with objectivity Ã¢â¬Ëthe word objectivity is rarely used by regulators, but is substituted by words such as Ã¢â¬ËimpartiallyÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËaccuracyÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËbalanceÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËfairnessÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëthey use a set of devices that they can argue that their reporting is unbiasedÃ¢â¬â¢ (Creeber, 2001: 117) Habermas (cited in Brom ley) argues that, Ã¢â¬Å" in social democracies such as Britain,TV news, because of its institutional position of (quasi) independence from the state and its statutory obligations towards impartiality and public service ideals,can serve to facilitate that Ã¢â¬Ërealm of social lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ which is available to all citizens and in which and through which Ã¢â¬Ësomething approaching public can be formed. (2001:61) I will now move on to analyse the BBC, Channel 4, and ITV news programmes, discussing the broadcaster views and policies and how they use personalization and impartiality in their news broadcasts All the news broadcasters mentioned Andy Murrays win at the Australian open, the presenters all used words like Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ can win and itÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"ourÃ¢â¬ time the news broadcasts were all very patriotic and involved the viewer in the story. I noticed how the BBC used personalisation in their story about the two children found dead in the boot of their motherÃ¢â¬â¢s car in east Sussex, the news reader introduced the story with a soft sympathetic voice to set the tone of the story, they showed two still images one image of the children and one of the mother which gives an insight into what people has been effected by this atrocity. The BBC also asked the neighbours opinion on the story all of these tequnices are used by the BBC to involve the viewer in the story and to make the viewer think that this could have been there next door neighbour with such quotes as Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s the same old story you would never it would happen in a place like this. ITVs take on the murder of the two children is a great deal more dramatised than the BBCs the reporter narrates Ã¢â¬Å"she is a happy little girl there is no clue no sign in this picture of the fate she faces why would there beÃ¢â¬ the reporter asks questions in the narration to make the viewer answer and become more involved in the story, there is shot of a mum and a young girl walking into a nursery school which basically sends the message to the viewer that this should have been the young girl and her mother. This was a good insight into what happened to the young children as the reporter points to the house to set the scene then recreates the journey the mum took by filming inside the car as the drivers point of view. ITV also asked the neighbours about their views on the situation, and the last image was very personal as it showed a message from the public or a family member saying sleep tight little babies. I noticed the similarities between ITV and Channel 4 news as their reports were very similar and so was there running order. After careful research I found out that both their news is provided by ITN who say they are Ã¢â¬Ëthe worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading independent content provider, producing news, entertainment and factual content across a range of platforms. I found that ITNÃ¢â¬â¢s news was dramatized compared to the BBCs this is due to the fact that the BBC prides its self in being impartial and the most respected News broadcaster in the world. After watching the BBC news I spotted some impartiality between the different news stories, in the first story about the war in Afghanistan, the picture behind the news reader shows the British and Afghanistan leaders standing side by side which implies that both leaders are together in their fight to have peace in Afghanistan. The first couple of minutes showed pictures of solders and the military winning the fight against the Taliban. The reporter mentions in the story the number of British solders killed at war and is Impartial because it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mention anything about any innocent civilians killed. The public views on the war in Afghanistan are mixed but I felt that the BBC were in favour of the war as the reporter said Ã¢â¬Å"in a country where most canÃ¢â¬â¢t read or writeÃ¢â¬ the solders have brought roads hospitals and schools to the area. And footage of a solder saying Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬â¢re winningÃ¢â¬ . Even though the BBC supported Ã¢â¬Å"the troopsÃ¢â¬ they were negative against both leaders saying Ã¢â¬Å"the leaders canÃ¢â¬â¢t guarantee to deliver on what they agreed today, the past few years in Afghanistan have been littered with failures. This was very impartial compared to the story of president Obama and his great American recession and job opportunities speech. The BBC report used positive words such as Ã¢â¬Å"not broken but bruisedÃ¢â¬ and great programs failing to mention that he hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t delivered on many policies that he promised in his election speech. This story also got more airtime than the segment on the recent job losses in Sunderland and Burnley which asks the question is the BBC more concerned about the American recession or the U. K recession. The Obama story got more airtime because it is infotainment as Obama is a celebrity president and is associated with celebrities such as jay Z. Galtung and Ruge conducted an analysis of newspapers in which they identified certain factors as being worthy of the news. These factors included things such as frequency, the time medium in which the event could be reported, threshold, the proximity of the story in relation to the reader; elite persons and nations, stories concerning powerful people or places and personalisation as well as others. The more of these criteria a story fills the more news worthy it is. Cited in Harcup and OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill,2001, p 279) This format of selecting the news is repeated regularly as an example the ITV news again selects stories about elite people The ITV had a different view on the policy against the Taliban the news report used words such as bribe and buy off the Taliban negative words to suggest that the policy is not a good idea. The first shot was footage of a dead solders coffin being laid to rest. It used words such as Ã¢â¬Å"the man he died forÃ¢â¬ suggesting the solder gave his life for the Afghanistan president it then showed clips of the Taliban firing rockets at the solders. This was a completely different view compared to the BBCs images of the solders winning battles and the solders being surrounded by children. The ITVs short report on the troops in Afghanistan was similar to the BBCs as it was very much supporting the troops but disagreeing with the government. With quotes from a dead solders farther saying Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think all his (Tony Blair) stories about fighting for a democracy are trueÃ¢â¬ it leads us to believe that the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to go to war isnÃ¢â¬â¢t as supported as we might believe. While watching the Channel 4 news broadcast on the Ã¢â¬ËTaliban buy outÃ¢â¬â¢ as the presenter called it I noticed a lot of tongue and cheek comments against the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s initiative, the first shot behind the anchor man was of Gordon Brown and president Hamid Karzai shaking hands which implied deal done, the main argument of the Channel 4 news was basically the war has failed for example they said throughout the broadcast Ã¢â¬Å"the war has failed so farÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"after marching eight years in Afghanistan to nowhereÃ¢â¬ . And that this new strategy is rubbish, by calling it Ã¢â¬Å"plan BÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the big Taliban buy outÃ¢â¬ the anchor man put the question to Gordon brown saying Ã¢â¬Å"why should the tax payers pay the Taliban who killed their sons to stop fighting and how do you know some people wonÃ¢â¬â¢t pretend to be in the Taliban for the money? Gordon browns response was pretty poor which led me to believe that this mandate isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a good idea and isnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to work. I found that the Channel 4 news were very sarcastic even to the extent of saying Ã¢â¬Å"the UN, Nato, and Ã¢â¬ ¦. the USA of courseÃ¢â¬ implying that the USA involve themselves in everything, yet in my opinion the USA have as much say over the war in Afghanistan as the UK. It seems that all the news broadcasters when they were reporting about the war in Afghanistan were very careful not to say a bad word about the army, yet most of their quotes from the reporters or general public were negative against the government. It is hard to be impartial when broadcasting the news due to individual believes and values, organ, culture, political and social pressures pulse the time of when the event is happing. We are all bias to opinion so there is no such thing as impartiality In conclusion In this essay I have defined both personalisation and impartiality looked in-depth into television news showing how news broadcasters show impartiality and personalisation in their broadcasts. I have given recent examples to back up my arguments and given academic quotes to back up the theories I use in this essay.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Sweet Home AlabamaÃ¢â¬ is a movie about Melanie Smooter played by Reese Witherspoon who is engaged to Andrew Hennings played by Patrick Dempsey and was out to go back to her hometown to divorce with her husband Jake Perry played by Josh Lucas. Melanie is a fashion designer who is with Patrick, a son of the mayor in New York. When Patrick asked Melanie to marry her, Melanie decided to go back to her hometown in Alabama to divorce with her husband Jake. Jake didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give her what she wants and so she was trap for a wile in the town so as to insist Jake to finally sign the paper of divorce. The story started on a beach with two kids, a boy and a girl. That was Melanie and Jake running on the beach while itÃ¢â¬â¢s raining. Jake tells Melanie that he wanted to marry her and Melanie asked why. From that flashback scene comes the present time with Melanie being engaged with her boyfriend and about to face her past with Jake.Ã It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t easy for Melanie to convince Jake to sign the divorce paper. During her stay in Alabama, she had the chance to visit her family. Melanie soon realizes that a part of her was still on that place. And even if she tries to go on with her new life, there is unfinished business that she needs to settle. Going back to her hometown seems to be an awkward situation for Melanie, especially when she joins her high school friends and reminisced about their old days. Those scenes will provide the viewers a wide understanding of the movie and how the sequence relates to another one. There were less flashbacks but the film provides scenes that will give better understanding to the past where it is important to show how thingsÃ happened after Melanie left Jake in Alabama and went to New York. As the film progresses, it clearly showed how a scene is related to another and its viewers will get to understand and appreciate the film more so. The film relates to us a story of a girl who found her new life outside her old hometown and forgets that she is still in that hometown whether she likes it or not. Melanie thinks she got everything she wished for but she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realized that what he left in that hometown will give her more than what she needs in life. Jake on the other hand still loves Melanie and is man enough to accept that Melanie wanted to call everything quits. Jake strived hard to make a good living and Melanie didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize that. A true love story that is romantic on its own, comedy and light.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Sweet Home AlabamaÃ¢â¬ is a film that will teach us to appreciate what we had and to learn that it wont hurt us to look back on out past once in a while. Personally, I liked the movie because of its simple and natural attack to its viewers. It will make you relate yourself to the characters of the film and will make you think of a possible situation in your own life. The film thought me that no matter how decided we are on one thing that we thought could make us happy, there is a thing that lies around us that will make us realized how important it is to our life. Regardless of the fact that Melanie has already found her new life and love, she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize that she left something more valuable and important than any other things in her life and that is Jake. The film also showed us that there are mistakes that could be done right and that no matter how painful your past is, you will never erase the fact that it will always be a partÃ of whom you are and what you have become. Nonetheless, the film provides us the understanding of how life gives us challenges that we can surpass. That sometimes even if we get out of the life we have and create a new one with others, we will still feel the need to go back to our old life and make it right. The film is beautifully made that is why I recommend this movie to be watched by other people. It showed the very meaning of love and it addresses to its viewer how love is sweeter the second time around. The film should be watched by young adults and as well as by the not so young and old people who is fond of romantic and comedy film. The characters of the film will surely make an impact to the life of its viewer and it will teach a good lesson in life. Indeed, the film gives us the chance to see a good story comes with a good cast of actors with remarkable acting skills. Ã¢â¬Å"Sweet Home AlabamaÃ¢â¬ is a movie that I will not get tired of watching over and over again. It is a movie that will make you smile in the beginning from end. It is a movie with a taste of love, life and second chances put into one masterpiece that will satisfy its viewer to the end. Definitely, Ã¢â¬Å"Sweet Home AlabamaÃ¢â¬ is a great movie to watch with your friends and/or special someone. Keep in mind to just enjoy watching the movie and try to create a story in your mind same as the movie for you to be able to relate your self more to the movie. But the movie is very easy to understand, you just need to take a good look of it and listen to the lines very well. Nevertheless, it is a movie that will share a wonderful life of success, share of pain and a happy ending that will make it even better for you to watch it again. References Sweet Home Alabama (2002). The Internet Movie Database. Retrieved November 26, 2007, from http://www.imdb.com. Sweet Home Alabama Facts.Ã Movies.Com. Retrieved November 26, 2007, from http://movies.go.com Ã Ã Ã
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Definition and Examples of Allusion The definition of allusion is a brief, usually indirect reference to another person, place, or event- real or fictional. Its use is a shortcut way of bringing extra meaning, clarity, or further explanation of an idea by referencing something that the audience already understands. Allusions may be historical, mythological, literary, pop cultural, or even personal. They can show up in literature, movies, television, comic books, video games, and ordinary conversations. Key Takeaways: Allusions An allusion is a reference to something else.A well-chosen allusion can pack a lot of meaning into very few words.The context of the reference needs to be understood by the audience, or not all of your meaning will be conveyed. The Oxford Dictionary of Reference and Allusion explains the techniques use this way: It is often possible to pack more meaning into a well-chosen allusion than into a roughly equivalent descriptive term from the general language either because an allusion can carry some of theÃ connotationsÃ of the whole story from which it is drawn, or because an individuals name can be associated with more than one characteristic. (Introduction Oxford Dictionary of Reference and Allusion, 3rd ed., edited by Andrew Delahunty and Sheila Dignen. Oxford University Press, 2010). An allusion is more subtle than a metaphor or simile, as a comparison. As a verb, the word is alludeÃ and as an adjective, allusive. It is also known as an echo or a reference. Allusion in Literature Poetry often contains allusion, as every word in a poem carries lots of weight, so a simple allusive phrase in a poem can bring forth many additional layers of meaning. Prose and drama can carry allusions too. Rich sources of allusions include the literary works of Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, Lewis Carroll, and George Orwell (among many others). Literary works can refer to other works to make a point (like Shakespearean characters referring to Greek myths or common superstitions of the time), or pop culture can make allusions to famous literature. Call someone a Shylock or a Romeo, and youre referring to Shakespeare. Use the phrase catch-22 to describe a paradoxical situation, and youre actually referring to a novel by Joseph Heller, whether you realize it or not.Ã If someone refers to an Adonis or an odyssey, those are Greek allusions. If you talk about taking the road less traveled, youre alluding to a Robert Frost poem. Biblical Allusions Biblical allusions are everywhere because theyre so widely understood. Anytime anyone speaks of Noah, a flood, an ark, Moses, a prodigal son returning, money-changers, Adam and Eve, a snake (or serpent), Eden, or David conquering Goliath- those are all biblical allusions.Ã Warren Buffet was once quoted as saying, I violated the Noah rule: predicting rain doesnt count; building arks does. Allusion in Political Speech Politicians make allusions all the time. Anytime you hear versions of anyone speaking softly or carrying a big stick, or having a big stick policy that person is alluding to Theodore Roosevelts views on foreign policy or his breaking up monopolies. Another phrase often alluded to is one from John F. Kennedys inaugural address, ask not what your country can do for you- ask what you can do for your country. Senator Obamas call to ask not just what our government can do for us, but what we can do for ourselves had an even more direct connection to the inaugural address of the first G.I. Generation president of the United States. (Morley Winograd and Michael D. Hais, Millennial Makeover. Rutgers University Press, 2008) Or Abraham Lincoln- anytime people are counting in scores, theyre likely alluding to the Gettysburg Address, which starts four score and seven years ago. The location of Martin Luther King Jr.s I have a dream speech being by the Lincoln Memorial was no accident but an allusion. Also, widely used allusions to famous quotesÃ include the U.S. Constitutions We the people or the Declaration of Independences unalienable rights. Allusion in Pop Culture and Memes Pop culture allusions have a shorter shelf life, to be sure, but things that start out on social media do on occasion become part of the mass consciousness. For example, if you hear something referred to as a challenge, it could likely be referring to doing something seen in a video online- either to raise money for charity, as in the ice-bucket challenge that raised money for ALS, or something thats dangerous, like kids attempting to eat laundry detergent pods.Ã Memes that follow big news stories are also allusions. Following the news of the latter challenge, social media saw lots of memes making fun of the idiocy of anyone whod even think of eating laundry soap, like Back in my day, we had our mouths washed out with soap as punishment. It doesnt mention the pod challenge directly but alludes to it.Ã Comic books have become reference points in the most popular and the most esoteric fiction and art. Everyone understands a Superman allusion or a Batman joke.Ã (Gerard Jones,Ã Men of Tomorrow, Basic Books, 2005)
Monday, November 4, 2019
Social Anxiety - Essay Example SAD is a psychiatric anxiety disorder with an extreme and excessive anxiety over everyday situation. It is a chronic feeling of devastation and fear of being watched and judged by others. Society anxiety causes physical symptoms which include stuttering, sweating, shaking and trembling, choking, chills, blushing, sweating, muscle tension, a fear of dying, losing control, or insanity. Some people may face such severe social anxiety that they experience panic attacks. A panic attack comes on suddenly and the fear is very intense. The physical symptoms of a panic attack include shallow breathing, difficulty in breathing, rapid heart beat, lightheadedness, and feeling as if one will faint. A person may feel that he/she will die during a panic attack but it will usually subside within 20-30 minutes. There are many contributing factors that lead to social anxiety. There are lifestyle and psychological factors that increase the risk of social anxiety. (Repich, 2002; Deas and Thomas, 2002; and Wardy, 2002.) These include the following: The diagnosis of social anxiety involves a medical practitioner reviewing one's background, medical history, symptoms, lifestyle, and dietary intake. The health care provider may conduct a psychological assessment.
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Research Paper - Essay Example As the world continue to apply information technology in various sectors such as banking, education, trade and entertainment, intellectual property issues have become even more complicated. This has led to the formulation of a new set of laws known as cyber laws. Consequently, cyber crimes are defined as any form of malpractice that involves tampering with computer based resources, cyber fraud, cyber based intimidation, and computer hackings are some of the major cyber crimes. These laws are incorporated in the information technology act, 2000. It is difficult to implement intellectual property rights without proper cyber laws and legislation. Intellectual property Patents A patent is a legal document that is issued by the federal government to an inventor. The document gives the owner exclusive rights of reproducing or participating in his innovation without threats from other developers. The right is meant to promote creativity and innovation in various industries2. Moreover, paten t rights allow members of the public to disclose innovations and other forms of technological advances in their respective industries3. Laws meant to protect intellectual property under patents have been criticized for certain ambiguities. This has necessitated constant reviews to make the required adjustments. Thus, suitable legislations should have clear definitions on patents and the extent to which patents can be applied. Furthermore, suitable legislation should set limits beyond which the legislations are considered to be violated. This is to safeguard innovators and other property developers from accusations of intellectual property theft. Trademarks Trademarks are quality assurance symbols and information used to identify the quality of a product. Ideally, trademarks are business items that are meant to protect manufacturers and traders. Tirade marks have often been accused of promoting monopoly trade, which may be harmful to the economy. This is because they promote the sale and continuity of popular products while they inconvenience inexperienced entrepreneurs. Trademarks are also used as sources of standards for a particular products and services. Copyrights Copyrights are constitutional property rights, which grant rightful owner, creators, or authors of certain material exclusive rights over their production and distribution. Copyrights provisions are meant to promote innovation and useful arts by offering incentives and protection to their owners. Ideally, copyrights protect intangible and original works including music, research, books, photographs, films, and computer software. Copyright is a collection of rights that include; the right to reproduce copyrighted material, rights to derive additional work, rights to distribution and public display. Each of these rights is protected under the information Technology Act of 2000. Cyber crime A cyber crime is regarded as any crime or offense that violates The Information Technology Act 2000. This rede finition leaves out major issues and provisions that threaten activities in the real world. Moreover, cyber laws conflicts with freedom of information and cyber space. Certainly, cyber laws cannot work in isolation and they require adequate collaboration with other supportive or related laws. For example, a person who is accused of sending intimidating massages over the internet will be charged with criminal intimidation provisions that are contained in the common laws4. Further, a person
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Feminism, - Essay Example While it is important to appreciate that these practices happen within a cultural context we then mirror the same aspects through the western culture and knowledge, global health, feminist and humanitarian perspective to come up with themes of similarity and contrast. Ã¢â¬Å"The Pain of Thinking too Much, dolor de cerebro and the Embodiment of Social Hardship among Nicaraguan WomenÃ¢â¬ is the main article in this report. Yarris mentions about families whose sons and daughters migrate to Costa Rica, Panama, Spain and the U.S in search for work and better lives for their families. The migration of sons and daughters is equated to combating poverty and those left behind have to assume caregiver roles and responsibilities, which is often an added burden. The women worry over the security and safety of their children as they transcend borders using illegal means to gain entry. In Nicaragua, the economics of migration sees households making a decision of send one or more members to neig hboring countries to work as a strategy to increase the income and economic security. The capitalistic economies create inferior jobs under pathetic working conditions in order to remain profitable with nationals unwilling to accept working in these conditions. This line of thought perceives the economics of the well to do countries exploiting and destroying poor countries through social fragmentation (Yarris 230). While some contemplate genital female mutilation with horror, others exalt and translate the process as purification and to constitute an important part of shaping and defining feminine sexuality, aesthetic and religion. Amidst the pain and discomfort, there is pride, joy, satisfaction and emotional attachment with girls who undergo the practice as initiates. Both authors converge in similarity on how history and human society use pain as a social mechanism to manipulate women and transform their identity. Human beings spend most of their lives in pain or suffering. Pain and suffering can be viewed punishment, sacrifice, reward or destiny. Aristotle spoke of pain as passions of the soul and to this day, we associate these emotions with matters of the soul and spirituality. Social forces through social institutions, global systems and culture cause social suffering. This is as witnesses in horrifying inhuman global acts and the role of institutional policies in producing greater suffering to human beings. In the era of organized religion pain and suffering was attributed to superior powers. The gods would determine when, how, who, where and the kind of suffering to give to human beings as an indication of their displeasure. In Christianity, suffering is not considered a bad thing or experience, but an essential aspect to get closer to God. In eastern cultures, self-inflicted pain is a religious tradition and believed to be manageable (Walley 406). According to Ã¢â¬Å"Searching for Voices, Feminism Anthropology and the Global Debate on Female Genital OperationsÃ¢â¬ , the worrier syndrome among Nicaragua women and genital mutilation as embedded in traditions may have serious effects on the health of populations. The older women suffer both mentally and emotionally as the worry and feel anxious for family members who are away especially if the person is a son, daughter or both. They are
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Hillary Clinton Campaign - Essay Example An excellent writing skill must be employed for an intelligent idea could be senseless without it being well-expressed. Though base on his/her opinion, the writer must be very careful with such strong emotions or personal bias as that could be a hinder in presenting a rational explanation. Prior to writing, the author must first check his own view specially if it was from an incoherent source or was formed many years ago. Faludi, on the first part of her article had made a concise yet substantial view of the current politics in America as she creatively relates it to the gender issue using the masculine myth as she expound on Boone's "Rescue" tableau. Her struggle to convince her reader to adhere to her strong preference towards McCain has been made very obvious as she presents the facts in a very explicit manner that displays McCain's masculinity in contrast to Obama's femininity. She needs not to make a last statement her conclusion because it has been clear in every part of her text. This discrimination, however, could possibly elicit the danger of appearing so biased that the reader would not want to continue reading knowing that they would be presented with the same presentation of the same argument. She has a great tendency to persuade her audience of her perspective that were based upon agreed-upon facts and shared values between McCain supporters and Obama's detractors. Her argument would be effective in aggravating McCain's supporters' admiration towards the politician, but for those on the opposite view as well as those in the middle, the article should have been inconspicuously partial. Collins' has concisely yet completely defined his own position early in his text as he dealt with a distinct, contentious issue. He skillfully states his stance without distorting any information. This he had done by having a profound knowledge on the issue beforehand thus he managed to create a logical explanation that have the power to convince even Clinton's supporter. He quoted reliable authorities like the person of Muriel Fox who was one of National Organization for Women's founder to back-up his idea. As using the first person weakens argument (Jordan-Henley, 2008), he need not to pronounce his text using such. He had refrained from presenting any bias by pointing out the bad side, "Her campaign was messy, and it made some fatal tactical errors" (Collins, 2008) as well as the good side, "But nobody who sent her a donation could accuse her of not giving them their money's worth" (Collins, 2008) of his opposing points. Allowing this type of compromise and portrayal of justice ha d been one of his effective tactics that had surely won neural readers' approval. Speaking adeptly, his discreet words and reasonable details have the power to move skeptics. Among the three authors, Herbert was apparently the only one who had backed up his idea using a considerably acceptable source, quoting from national poll by Lifetime television as well as nonpartisan campaign. He had been very clear with his topic as he creates an actual picture of the current gender issue that U.S. was experiencing at the very moment. He's introduction had been nonetheless factual and the rest of the text was
Sunday, October 27, 2019
The Body Shop: Corporate Governance Management System Corporate Governance The management system and governance of each and every organisation is accountable for the maintenance of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s strength and survival in the stiff competition in the business world. The role of the governance imposed by the organisation as a whole should always be open minded for the occurrences of changes in order to adjust and cope with the tremendous development that are happening in the internal and external environment of the organisation. With the constantly changing environment, many people especially those in the working organisation find themselves normally adapting. This is because change can bring many improvement and development in different aspects of competency. In many ways, change can make work easier, pave the way for future innovations or generally improve peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Similarly, change has been adapted by various work organisations for varied reasons. Important changes in the understanding and management of corporate governance and its impacts on businesses have been developed in the past 10 to 15 years. Various researchers, practitioners and policymakers now acknowledge that corporate governance and its impacts on businesses can be conceptualised from a functional perspective and that appropriate interventions involve the development of alternative measures to cope up. It was also noted that the establishment of a conducive environment for learning and training as an integral component of corporate governance have served effectively in implementing organisational change strategies for transformation. At present, this philosophical shift has extended to various settings, including multinational companies and organisations. Directors here have recognised that some employees do not have the skills and behavioural repertoires necessary to cope with the many expectations and challenges of corporate governance. Hence, these employees m ay have the tendency to remain contented with their mediocre performances as their alternative way of mitigating these expectations. Corporate governance pertains to the set of policies that are established in order to make influence in the manner in which an organisation or company is managed, governed or operated. The execution of corporate governance leads to the efficient and effective implementation of the policies and tasks necessary to satisfy a firms customers, employees, and management. It also focuses on the careful management of the processes involved in the relationships among all the stakeholders involved (Bhattacharya, 2000). More often than not, small companies dont really have the capabilities to implement corporate governance. Instead, these companies engage in activities that various schools of management typically associate with the implementation of corporate governance. These activities include the establishment of rules, policies for decision-making, monitoring and evaluation. However, corporate governance deals with all operations done within companies and organisations. Activities such as the management of responsibilities, the control of operations, logistics and evaluations are often related with corporate governance. A great deal of emphasis lies on the efficiency and effectiveness of processes. Therefore, corporate governance includes the analysis and management of internal processes. The Body Shop will be the model business entity that will be used in this research based on their history in corporate governance. Company Background A known British chain of cosmetic stores called Ã¢â¬Å"Body ShopÃ¢â¬ which is found almost all over the world shows tremendous success in previous years is also the company The Body Shop International plc. Actually, The Body Shop agreed to a Ã £652 million takeover offer by a French cosmetics group LOrÃ ©al on 17 March 2006. The Body Shop was founded by Anita Roddick, distinguished for selling its own line of products not tested on animals, and produced in an ecologically sustainable approach (wikipedia, 2006). The Body Shop aims for sustainable growth as a broad market leader in cosmetics as well as for segment leadership. In both cases, the brands of The Body Shop will play a crucial part. The Body Shop is able to establish its broad leadership usually by merging with other strong cosmetics companies and their products, which are then combined into a new, larger company. Offering training to its employees, improving the company operations, and the introduction of new beauty products and technologies then reinforces the positions of the various products of The Body Shop. This practically results in economies of scale that is able to create a distribution network for both its local and international products. If a market is already in the control of other companies, The Body Shop devotes its attention towards the development of a premium segment with its various beauty products. Discussions Any business organisation fundamentally exists because it has certain responsibilities to fulfil for the people in the community as well as the various entities comprising it. The organisation has its human entity ranging from the staff, to the managers, board of directors, stakeholders, suppliers and so forth. All these groups have their own set of functions that contribute to the determination of the business goals, the delivery mechanisms of goods and services, and the operational patterns within the organisation. Furthermore, business organisations are part of the larger society where the markets and consumers are targeted and derived. The complexity of the internal and external surroundings of the business necessitates crucial deliberations and decisions in order to ensure the effective and continuous affairs of the organisation. The overall management of the internal and external affairs of the organisation is what basically forms corporate governance. Basic Definitions 1) Corporate Governance pertains to the set of policies that are established in order to make influence in the manner in which an organisation or company is managed, governed or operated (Bhattacharya, 2000). 2) Company Performance can be measured in terms of the efficient and effective implementation of the policies and tasks necessary to acquire the essential goods or services at the best possible total cost of ownership, leading to the overall satisfaction of a firms customers, employees, and management (Booms, 1981). Role of Executive Directors Executive directors have the primary role to make specific identifications of all the possible sources of evaluation information which includes company performance. This is because aside from the observations of the immediate supervisors, company performance evaluation information can still come from a variety of other sources, including the employees, subordinates, and work products (Einsestat, 2001). For example, whenever The Body Shop utilises company performance information from individuals other than the immediate supervisor, the management informs the employees of the possible sources at the start of the company performance cycle, where they receive their company performance plans. In addition, these executive directors are the people who develop their companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance plans. The plans are signed by the employees and then passed on to the management for approval. They make sure that company performance plans are complete and adequate before signing the forms (Gonzalez, 2003). Executive directors also discuss the company performance plans with the employees in a clear and organised manner. Generally, discussions are conducted within 30 days of the start of the company performance cycle. Role of Non-executive Directors Non-executive directors document their companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and provide feedback to the executive directors from time to time throughout the company performance cycle. Documentation normally occurs in the form of memos, and these are retained in the non-executive directorsÃ¢â¬â¢ confidential files. Actually, these directors also have the authority to determine substandard or unacceptable company performance (Galpin et al. 2002). They normally address minor or marginal company performance issues through company performance counselling and coaching. The Body ShopÃ¢â¬â¢s Corporate Governance It can be said that the company has a very good framework that has been established in order to deal with different corporate matters. In fact, there is usually a properly structured program that is further reinforced by company policies and other procedures for the proper guidance of the directors in their daily duties. Consequently, the company has a clear reference guide to its business operations and corporate governance. The Board of Directors which oversee the businesses and the decision-making routines as well as the financial aspect of things, keeps watch. In addition, this includes the maintenance of the standards with regards to corporate governance in the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s different sectors. The Board is made up of ten directors; two are executive while six are non-executive. Because of this, there is a fair division of responsibilities and other tasks among them. And while the non-executive directors are independent from the others, they are still able to contribute their experience and knowledge during Board discussions. Without a doubt, The Board is in-charge of caring for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations, assets, and its shareholders. All-in-all, the board aims to work with these factors in the hopes of maximising performance. Because of this, it is The Board that is responsible for the finalisation of budgets and strategic plans. And in order to ensure the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s competent operations, The Board conducts a monthly review of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses in relation to its financial movements. Furthermore, there is a company law that obliges The Board of Directors to carefully prepare each year, a financial report that would have to be accurate and reliable reflecting the true state of the company. All things considered, The Board of Directors is the one that is responsible for the proper safekeeping of accounting statements and to ensure that these records are precise and truthful. In addition, the board is in-charge of guarding the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s other assets as well as making the necessary steps in order to prevent complications such as fraud and other types of risks. Aside from the board of directors, the company also has other committees as part of their corporate governance. Just like the board, other committees have a well-established reference guide which also discusses their duties and their scope of authority within the corporation. Composed typically of independent directors who are non-executive, the remuneration committee handles the outline for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s remuneration policy which would eventually be reviewed by the board. Moreover, this group is also responsible for the various remuneration packages that are given to executive directors. On the other hand, there is also a nomination committee which is also made up of mostly non-executive directors. The responsibility of this group is to recommend to The Board on which people should be appointed as directors. There is also a group known as the audit committee. Compared to the other two, the members of this committee is purely composed of non-executive directors. This groupÃ¢â¬â¢s duty is to make proper recommendations with regards to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s accounting policies as well as overseeing financial control within the corporation (Sternberg, 1998). For this reason, the committee usually receives and reviews financial reports and other statements delivered to them. Then, they make a comprehensive report before they submit it to The Board. Of course, there is also the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation of the risks involved which has always been done to assist with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s next business move, and have further control of the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s different operations. Apparently, The Body Shop has a clear code of ethics and all employees must affirm their acceptance of this code. The code of ethics includes a conflict of interest policy to ensure that key corporate decisions are made by individuals who do not have a financial interest in the outcome separate from their interest as company officials. The company also actively monitors compliance with the law and the global financial policies and practices over critical areas. These areas include internal controls, financial accounting and reporting, fiduciary accountability and safeguarding of our corporate assets. A major factor involved in the improvement of The Body Shop involves the establishment and utilisation of company performance measures or indicators that in turn measure their customerÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction. These measures or indicators are measurable characteristics of products and services that the company typically utilises in order to study and improve company performance. The indicators that will be chosen should be able to represent the essential factors that are crucial to the improvement of operational and financial performance. Through the analysis of accurate information brought about by the tracking processes, the measures or indicators themselves can possibly be analysed and improved to support such goals. Effects of Governance to The Body ShopÃ¢â¬â¢s Business Ethics and Purpose The Board has been able to attain complete control of all matters regarding the company. Their self-perseverance and obligation to their duties and finally, their obedience to the company laws all contribute to the development of the corporation. As such, The Board constantly believes that all the data pertaining to financial information and other facts regarding to their operations that are currently being used is reliable. The BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s authority is clearly recognised within the company. And because of this, it is able to have a solid grip on the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s actual operations, stakeholders and its financial concerns. Needless to say, because of the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s proper structure and its commitment to the stakeholders and to the community as well, the board of directors has proven that it can efficiently handle both its ethical and legal responsibilities. Furthermore, the company is currently maintaining good relations and open communications with its investors. As a matter of fact, shareholders are regularly invited by the corporation whenever there are gatherings to discuss trade updates. Moreover, whenever there is an annual general meeting, investors get the chance to meet The Board members themselves. And of course, for private investors, they can also access the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s website for various shareholder services. Undoubtedly, the company has good consideration for all of its stakeholders; past, present and future. There definitely seems to be a very well planned framework in the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate division. It has good policies and procedures with regards to financial matters and operational concerns. Its procedure of assessing the different kinds of situations that come up is certainly a good move on their part. Not to mention, they have maintained good relations with their stakeholders. And finally, The BoardÃ¢â¬â ¢s authority is unsurpassed. Clearly, these facts prove the strength of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate governance structure. The weakness on this case however, is the fact that it cannot always be assured that there are no losses or other errors which may result from mistakes and inconsistencies by one of the committees or employees involved. In addition, having diverse populations, there can be a possibility of having internal problems between members who have different culture and beliefs. In addition, some problems occur in terms of giving value to the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ shareholders. There are times that the shareholder is not given the enough information about the status of the company, specifically that shareholder which have a small part in the business. This happens when the board of directors does not give value to their shareholders. Other negative aspects include the imperfection of financial reporting procedures which may definitely result in ineffective corporate governance. Why it is of interest to diverse stakeholder groups? The occurrence of corporate governance systems within diverse stakeholder groups reflects the growing difficulty in the management of organisations that require the effective use of valuable resources such as money, materials, equipments, and people. And there is no exception to these. This is the reason why corporate governance systems are being implemented within diverse stakeholder groups in order for them to determine the most effective ways to coordinate these resources through the application of analytical methods derived from fields of studies (Jobber, 1998). Through this process, group management problems are solved in different ways and alternative solutions are then relayed to the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s management. The management then selects the appropriate course of action in line with their goals. More often than not, corporate governance systems are concerned with complicated issues such as top-level strategy, resource allocation, designing of production facilities and systems, pricing and the analysis of large databases. For example, the company governance strategies of Heineken are focused mainly on driving the growth of its brands and improving the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial performance. These company governance strategies have also helped them secure significant acquisitions and partnerships. And more importantly, these campaigns have led to the release of the potentials of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s employees, thus building a quality performance- based culture. On the other hand, Alliance Boots, EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s leading pharmacy-led health and beauty group came into being with the merger of Alliance UniChem and Boots Group.Ã The merger recognises and strengthens the existing strategies of both entities by combining complementary businesses and strengths to create an international force in pharmacy-ledÃ health and beauty while maintaining the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to the independent pharmacists through enhanced wholesale distribution and retail services. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate aim is to deliver products that make people look and feel their best. In order to do so, the company values performance and continuously strives to fulfil promises to shareholders through setting high standards of practice that are recognised by all internal and external stakeholders. It intends to lead the pharmacy and beauty industries with its products while demonstrating expertise in conceptualising, marketing, selling and distributing its brands (c ited in the Alliance Boots website 2006). From these examples, we may say that corporate governance should set a proper example of good intent, and provide for those lower in corporate hierarchies the clear message that it is Ã¢â¬Å"do as I doÃ¢â¬ as well as Ã¢â¬Å"do as I sayÃ¢â¬ (Francis, 2000). Middle and lower management find it hard to be ethical when it seems that the top of the corporate hierarchy have no commitment. The message of sincerity will always filter down, and no amount of deception will foster the view that a board is ethical when it plainly is not. Additionally, the commitment to ethical corporate governance by a board will enhance the prospects of an ethical infrastructure within the organisation. That ethical infrastructure is a manifestation of the commitment, a means of preventing and resolving ethical problems, and an impressive demonstration of sincerity. Conclusion As a person with knowledge of corporate governance systems, the author has always brought up to his superiors the viability of strategy formation regarding the analysis of this topic and at times fails to understand the reasons or logic behind certain strategic implementations imposed on it. By delving into this project paper, the author intended to have better insights into how corporate governance systems are thought up, formulated and then imparted down into the subsidiaries of the company or organisation. The author hoped to have an in-depth understanding as to how the corporate governance systems of companies and organisations are able to compete effectively and profitably in this era of internationalisation where competition is extremely intense. In order to reinforce the learning objectives, two key focal issues were focused upon i.e. innovation and diversity. Innovation was discussed with regard to corporate governance systems of companies and organisations where they were renowned for their developmental capabilities to constantly innovate. Diversity came under strategic thinking and formation as the author considered the diverse culture, political climate, economic surroundings, social environment, technological settings, government policies and legal systems in order to better understand the issues being discussed. The results of the analysis carried out on the corporate governance systems of The Body Shop indicated very significant effects, even amidst the threats of unrest. Therefore, we could conclude that the corporate governance systems of The Body Shop could still be expected to improve faster than average. The review of the capabilities and resources of the corporate governance systems of The Body Shop revealed very little inconsistencies regarding its strategies. This is coherent with their traditional inside-out approach. However, the need to reconcile both the inside-out and outside-in approaches becomes imperative now for The Body Shop. The analysis among the cosmetics industry environment as well as the corporate governance systems of The Body Shop and their capabilities revealed certain gaps, most of which are biased towards the industry environment. However, these gaps paved the way towards determining a number of recommended strategic options to secure the competitiveness of The Body Shop. Also, The Body Shop has to find a balance between adherence to internal forces within the management and to the changing forces of the environment in order to implement such strategic options. References: Allianceboots 2006, Alliance Boots Website and location of Annual Report 2005, Available at: http://www.allianceboots.com, Accessed: November 2006. Bhattacharya, C. B. 2000, Relationship Marketing in Mass Markets, Handbook of Relationship Marketing, Thousand Oaks: Sage. Booms, B. H. 1981, Marketing Strategies and Organisation Structures for Service Firms, in Marketing of Services, J. H. Donnelly and W. R. George, Eds. Chicago: American Marketing Association. Eisenstat, R. A. 2001, Organisational Dynamics, pp. 6-14. Francis, R. 2000, Ethics and Corporate Governance: An Australian Handbook. Sydney, N.S.W.: University of New South Wales Press. Galpin, T, and Murray, P. 2002 HR Magazine, issue # 5, pp. 16-20. Gonzalez, M. 2003, Journal of Business Strategy, issue # 5, pp. 9-11. GrÃ ¶nroos, C. 1994, From Marketing Mix to Relationship Marketing: Towards a Paradigm Shift in Marketing, Management Decision, 32 (2), Jobber, D. 1998, Principles and Practice of Marketing (2nd ed.). London: McGraw-Hill Publishing. Sternberg, E. 1998, Corporate governance: accountability in the marketplace. London: The Institute of Economic Affairs. The Body Shop 2006, Available at: http://www.thebodyshopinternational.com/. Retrieved: December 7, 2006. Wikipedia 2006, The Body Shop, Available at:www.wikipedia.com, Accessed: November 2006. APPENDIX The Body ShopÃ¢â¬â¢s Corporate Government The Board of Directors and management of The Body Shop believe that sound principles of corporate governance are critical to obtaining and retaining the trust and respect of stockholders, employees, other stakeholders and the public. The board serves at the discretion of stockholders and works to represent their interests by enhancing business strategies and practices for the creation of long term stockholder value. Governance Summary The board consists of three standing committees: Audit Committee, Compensation Committee and the Nominating and Governance Committee; A majority of board members are independent of the company and its management; The Audit Committee of the board has established policies consistent with the newly enacted corporate reform laws for auditor independence; The independent members of the board meet regularly without the presence of management; The charters of our board committees clearly establish their respective roles and responsibilities; The company has a clear code of ethics and all employees must affirm their acceptance of this code. The code of ethics includes a conflict of interest policy to ensure that key corporate decisions are made by individuals who do not have a financial interest in the outcome separate from their interest as company officials; The company actively monitors compliance with the law and the global financial policies and practices over critical areas. These areas include internal controls, financial accounting and reporting, fiduciary accountability and safeguarding of our corporate assets.